Stimulus Checks And Multi-Trillion Dollar Bailouts Are

Why i’m bullish on Zilliqa (long read)

Edit: TL;DR added in the comments
 
Hey all, I've been researching coins since 2017 and have gone through 100s of them in the last 3 years. I got introduced to blockchain via Bitcoin of course, analyzed Ethereum thereafter and from that moment I have a keen interest in smart contact platforms. I’m passionate about Ethereum but I find Zilliqa to have a better risk-reward ratio. Especially because Zilliqa has found an elegant balance between being secure, decentralized and scalable in my opinion.
 
Below I post my analysis of why from all the coins I went through I’m most bullish on Zilliqa (yes I went through Tezos, EOS, NEO, VeChain, Harmony, Algorand, Cardano etc.). Note that this is not investment advice and although it's a thorough analysis there is obviously some bias involved. Looking forward to what you all think!
 
Fun fact: the name Zilliqa is a play on ‘silica’ silicon dioxide which means “Silicon for the high-throughput consensus computer.”
 
This post is divided into (i) Technology, (ii) Business & Partnerships, and (iii) Marketing & Community. I’ve tried to make the technology part readable for a broad audience. If you’ve ever tried understanding the inner workings of Bitcoin and Ethereum you should be able to grasp most parts. Otherwise, just skim through and once you are zoning out head to the next part.
 
Technology and some more:
 
Introduction
 
The technology is one of the main reasons why I’m so bullish on Zilliqa. First thing you see on their website is: “Zilliqa is a high-performance, high-security blockchain platform for enterprises and next-generation applications.” These are some bold statements.
 
Before we deep dive into the technology let’s take a step back in time first as they have quite the history. The initial research paper from which Zilliqa originated dates back to August 2016: Elastico: A Secure Sharding Protocol For Open Blockchains where Loi Luu (Kyber Network) is one of the co-authors. Other ideas that led to the development of what Zilliqa has become today are: Bitcoin-NG, collective signing CoSi, ByzCoin and Omniledger.
 
The technical white paper was made public in August 2017 and since then they have achieved everything stated in the white paper and also created their own open source intermediate level smart contract language called Scilla (functional programming language similar to OCaml) too.
 
Mainnet is live since the end of January 2019 with daily transaction rates growing continuously. About a week ago mainnet reached 5 million transactions, 500.000+ addresses in total along with 2400 nodes keeping the network decentralized and secure. Circulating supply is nearing 11 billion and currently only mining rewards are left. The maximum supply is 21 billion with annual inflation being 7.13% currently and will only decrease with time.
 
Zilliqa realized early on that the usage of public cryptocurrencies and smart contracts were increasing but decentralized, secure, and scalable alternatives were lacking in the crypto space. They proposed to apply sharding onto a public smart contract blockchain where the transaction rate increases almost linear with the increase in the amount of nodes. More nodes = higher transaction throughput and increased decentralization. Sharding comes in many forms and Zilliqa uses network-, transaction- and computational sharding. Network sharding opens up the possibility of using transaction- and computational sharding on top. Zilliqa does not use state sharding for now. We’ll come back to this later.
 
Before we continue dissecting how Zilliqa achieves such from a technological standpoint it’s good to keep in mind that a blockchain being decentralised and secure and scalable is still one of the main hurdles in allowing widespread usage of decentralised networks. In my opinion this needs to be solved first before blockchains can get to the point where they can create and add large scale value. So I invite you to read the next section to grasp the underlying fundamentals. Because after all these premises need to be true otherwise there isn’t a fundamental case to be bullish on Zilliqa, right?
 
Down the rabbit hole
 
How have they achieved this? Let’s define the basics first: key players on Zilliqa are the users and the miners. A user is anybody who uses the blockchain to transfer funds or run smart contracts. Miners are the (shard) nodes in the network who run the consensus protocol and get rewarded for their service in Zillings (ZIL). The mining network is divided into several smaller networks called shards, which is also referred to as ‘network sharding’. Miners subsequently are randomly assigned to a shard by another set of miners called DS (Directory Service) nodes. The regular shards process transactions and the outputs of these shards are eventually combined by the DS shard as they reach consensus on the final state. More on how these DS shards reach consensus (via pBFT) will be explained later on.
 
The Zilliqa network produces two types of blocks: DS blocks and Tx blocks. One DS Block consists of 100 Tx Blocks. And as previously mentioned there are two types of nodes concerned with reaching consensus: shard nodes and DS nodes. Becoming a shard node or DS node is being defined by the result of a PoW cycle (Ethash) at the beginning of the DS Block. All candidate mining nodes compete with each other and run the PoW (Proof-of-Work) cycle for 60 seconds and the submissions achieving the highest difficulty will be allowed on the network. And to put it in perspective: the average difficulty for one DS node is ~ 2 Th/s equaling 2.000.000 Mh/s or 55 thousand+ GeForce GTX 1070 / 8 GB GPUs at 35.4 Mh/s. Each DS Block 10 new DS nodes are allowed. And a shard node needs to provide around 8.53 GH/s currently (around 240 GTX 1070s). Dual mining ETH/ETC and ZIL is possible and can be done via mining software such as Phoenix and Claymore. There are pools and if you have large amounts of hashing power (Ethash) available you could mine solo.
 
The PoW cycle of 60 seconds is a peak performance and acts as an entry ticket to the network. The entry ticket is called a sybil resistance mechanism and makes it incredibly hard for adversaries to spawn lots of identities and manipulate the network with these identities. And after every 100 Tx Blocks which corresponds to roughly 1,5 hour this PoW process repeats. In between these 1,5 hour, no PoW needs to be done meaning Zilliqa’s energy consumption to keep the network secure is low. For more detailed information on how mining works click here.
Okay, hats off to you. You have made it this far. Before we go any deeper down the rabbit hole we first must understand why Zilliqa goes through all of the above technicalities and understand a bit more what a blockchain on a more fundamental level is. Because the core of Zilliqa’s consensus protocol relies on the usage of pBFT (practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance) we need to know more about state machines and their function. Navigate to Viewblock, a Zilliqa block explorer, and just come back to this article. We will use this site to navigate through a few concepts.
 
We have established that Zilliqa is a public and distributed blockchain. Meaning that everyone with an internet connection can send ZILs, trigger smart contracts, etc. and there is no central authority who fully controls the network. Zilliqa and other public and distributed blockchains (like Bitcoin and Ethereum) can also be defined as state machines.
 
Taking the liberty of paraphrasing examples and definitions given by Samuel Brooks’ medium article, he describes the definition of a blockchain (like Zilliqa) as: “A peer-to-peer, append-only datastore that uses consensus to synchronize cryptographically-secure data”.
 
Next, he states that: "blockchains are fundamentally systems for managing valid state transitions”. For some more context, I recommend reading the whole medium article to get a better grasp of the definitions and understanding of state machines. Nevertheless, let’s try to simplify and compile it into a single paragraph. Take traffic lights as an example: all its states (red, amber, and green) are predefined, all possible outcomes are known and it doesn’t matter if you encounter the traffic light today or tomorrow. It will still behave the same. Managing the states of a traffic light can be done by triggering a sensor on the road or pushing a button resulting in one traffic lights’ state going from green to red (via amber) and another light from red to green.
 
With public blockchains like Zilliqa, this isn’t so straightforward and simple. It started with block #1 almost 1,5 years ago and every 45 seconds or so a new block linked to the previous block is being added. Resulting in a chain of blocks with transactions in it that everyone can verify from block #1 to the current #647.000+ block. The state is ever changing and the states it can find itself in are infinite. And while the traffic light might work together in tandem with various other traffic lights, it’s rather insignificant comparing it to a public blockchain. Because Zilliqa consists of 2400 nodes who need to work together to achieve consensus on what the latest valid state is while some of these nodes may have latency or broadcast issues, drop offline or are deliberately trying to attack the network, etc.
 
Now go back to the Viewblock page take a look at the amount of transaction, addresses, block and DS height and then hit refresh. Obviously as expected you see new incremented values on one or all parameters. And how did the Zilliqa blockchain manage to transition from a previous valid state to the latest valid state? By using pBFT to reach consensus on the latest valid state.
 
After having obtained the entry ticket, miners execute pBFT to reach consensus on the ever-changing state of the blockchain. pBFT requires a series of network communication between nodes, and as such there is no GPU involved (but CPU). Resulting in the total energy consumed to keep the blockchain secure, decentralized and scalable being low.
 
pBFT stands for practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance and is an optimization on the Byzantine Fault Tolerant algorithm. To quote Blockonomi: “In the context of distributed systems, Byzantine Fault Tolerance is the ability of a distributed computer network to function as desired and correctly reach a sufficient consensus despite malicious components (nodes) of the system failing or propagating incorrect information to other peers.” Zilliqa is such a distributed computer network and depends on the honesty of the nodes (shard and DS) to reach consensus and to continuously update the state with the latest block. If pBFT is a new term for you I can highly recommend the Blockonomi article.
 
The idea of pBFT was introduced in 1999 - one of the authors even won a Turing award for it - and it is well researched and applied in various blockchains and distributed systems nowadays. If you want more advanced information than the Blockonomi link provides click here. And if you’re in between Blockonomi and the University of Singapore read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 2 dating from October 2017.
Quoting from the Zilliqa tech whitepaper: “pBFT relies upon a correct leader (which is randomly selected) to begin each phase and proceed when the sufficient majority exists. In case the leader is byzantine it can stall the entire consensus protocol. To address this challenge, pBFT offers a view change protocol to replace the byzantine leader with another one.”
 
pBFT can tolerate ⅓ of the nodes being dishonest (offline counts as Byzantine = dishonest) and the consensus protocol will function without stalling or hiccups. Once there are more than ⅓ of dishonest nodes but no more than ⅔ the network will be stalled and a view change will be triggered to elect a new DS leader. Only when more than ⅔ of the nodes are dishonest (66%) double-spend attacks become possible.
 
If the network stalls no transactions can be processed and one has to wait until a new honest leader has been elected. When the mainnet was just launched and in its early phases, view changes happened regularly. As of today the last stalling of the network - and view change being triggered - was at the end of October 2019.
 
Another benefit of using pBFT for consensus besides low energy is the immediate finality it provides. Once your transaction is included in a block and the block is added to the chain it’s done. Lastly, take a look at this article where three types of finality are being defined: probabilistic, absolute and economic finality. Zilliqa falls under the absolute finality (just like Tendermint for example). Although lengthy already we skipped through some of the inner workings from Zilliqa’s consensus: read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 3 and you will be close to having a complete picture on it. Enough about PoW, sybil resistance mechanism, pBFT, etc. Another thing we haven’t looked at yet is the amount of decentralization.
 
Decentralisation
 
Currently, there are four shards, each one of them consisting of 600 nodes. 1 shard with 600 so-called DS nodes (Directory Service - they need to achieve a higher difficulty than shard nodes) and 1800 shard nodes of which 250 are shard guards (centralized nodes controlled by the team). The amount of shard guards has been steadily declining from 1200 in January 2019 to 250 as of May 2020. On the Viewblock statistics, you can see that many of the nodes are being located in the US but those are only the (CPU parts of the) shard nodes who perform pBFT. There is no data from where the PoW sources are coming. And when the Zilliqa blockchain starts reaching its transaction capacity limit, a network upgrade needs to be executed to lift the current cap of maximum 2400 nodes to allow more nodes and formation of more shards which will allow to network to keep on scaling according to demand.
Besides shard nodes there are also seed nodes. The main role of seed nodes is to serve as direct access points (for end-users and clients) to the core Zilliqa network that validates transactions. Seed nodes consolidate transaction requests and forward these to the lookup nodes (another type of nodes) for distribution to the shards in the network. Seed nodes also maintain the entire transaction history and the global state of the blockchain which is needed to provide services such as block explorers. Seed nodes in the Zilliqa network are comparable to Infura on Ethereum.
 
The seed nodes were first only operated by Zilliqa themselves, exchanges and Viewblock. Operators of seed nodes like exchanges had no incentive to open them for the greater public. They were centralised at first. Decentralisation at the seed nodes level has been steadily rolled out since March 2020 ( Zilliqa Improvement Proposal 3 ). Currently the amount of seed nodes is being increased, they are public-facing and at the same time PoS is applied to incentivize seed node operators and make it possible for ZIL holders to stake and earn passive yields. Important distinction: seed nodes are not involved with consensus! That is still PoW as entry ticket and pBFT for the actual consensus.
 
5% of the block rewards are being assigned to seed nodes (from the beginning in 2019) and those are being used to pay out ZIL stakers. The 5% block rewards with an annual yield of 10.03% translate to roughly 610 MM ZILs in total that can be staked. Exchanges use the custodial variant of staking and wallets like Moonlet will use the non-custodial version (starting in Q3 2020). Staking is being done by sending ZILs to a smart contract created by Zilliqa and audited by Quantstamp.
 
With a high amount of DS; shard nodes and seed nodes becoming more decentralized too, Zilliqa qualifies for the label of decentralized in my opinion.
 
Smart contracts
 
Let me start by saying I’m not a developer and my programming skills are quite limited. So I‘m taking the ELI5 route (maybe 12) but if you are familiar with Javascript, Solidity or specifically OCaml please head straight to Scilla - read the docs to get a good initial grasp of how Zilliqa’s smart contract language Scilla works and if you ask yourself “why another programming language?” check this article. And if you want to play around with some sample contracts in an IDE click here. The faucet can be found here. And more information on architecture, dapp development and API can be found on the Developer Portal.
If you are more into listening and watching: check this recent webinar explaining Zilliqa and Scilla. Link is time-stamped so you’ll start right away with a platform introduction, roadmap 2020 and afterwards a proper Scilla introduction.
 
Generalized: programming languages can be divided into being ‘object-oriented’ or ‘functional’. Here is an ELI5 given by software development academy: * “all programs have two basic components, data – what the program knows – and behavior – what the program can do with that data. So object-oriented programming states that combining data and related behaviors in one place, is called “object”, which makes it easier to understand how a particular program works. On the other hand, functional programming argues that data and behavior are different things and should be separated to ensure their clarity.” *
 
Scilla is on the functional side and shares similarities with OCaml: OCaml is a general-purpose programming language with an emphasis on expressiveness and safety. It has an advanced type system that helps catch your mistakes without getting in your way. It's used in environments where a single mistake can cost millions and speed matters, is supported by an active community, and has a rich set of libraries and development tools. For all its power, OCaml is also pretty simple, which is one reason it's often used as a teaching language.
 
Scilla is blockchain agnostic, can be implemented onto other blockchains as well, is recognized by academics and won a so-called Distinguished Artifact Award award at the end of last year.
 
One of the reasons why the Zilliqa team decided to create their own programming language focused on preventing smart contract vulnerabilities is that adding logic on a blockchain, programming, means that you cannot afford to make mistakes. Otherwise, it could cost you. It’s all great and fun blockchains being immutable but updating your code because you found a bug isn’t the same as with a regular web application for example. And with smart contracts, it inherently involves cryptocurrencies in some form thus value.
 
Another difference with programming languages on a blockchain is gas. Every transaction you do on a smart contract platform like Zilliqa or Ethereum costs gas. With gas you basically pay for computational costs. Sending a ZIL from address A to address B costs 0.001 ZIL currently. Smart contracts are more complex, often involve various functions and require more gas (if gas is a new concept click here ).
 
So with Scilla, similar to Solidity, you need to make sure that “every function in your smart contract will run as expected without hitting gas limits. An improper resource analysis may lead to situations where funds may get stuck simply because a part of the smart contract code cannot be executed due to gas limits. Such constraints are not present in traditional software systems”. Scilla design story part 1
 
Some examples of smart contract issues you’d want to avoid are: leaking funds, ‘unexpected changes to critical state variables’ (example: someone other than you setting his or her address as the owner of the smart contract after creation) or simply killing a contract.
 
Scilla also allows for formal verification. Wikipedia to the rescue: In the context of hardware and software systems, formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of intended algorithms underlying a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property, using formal methods of mathematics.
 
Formal verification can be helpful in proving the correctness of systems such as: cryptographic protocols, combinational circuits, digital circuits with internal memory, and software expressed as source code.
 
Scilla is being developed hand-in-hand with formalization of its semantics and its embedding into the Coq proof assistant — a state-of-the art tool for mechanized proofs about properties of programs.”
 
Simply put, with Scilla and accompanying tooling developers can be mathematically sure and proof that the smart contract they’ve written does what he or she intends it to do.
 
Smart contract on a sharded environment and state sharding
 
There is one more topic I’d like to touch on: smart contract execution in a sharded environment (and what is the effect of state sharding). This is a complex topic. I’m not able to explain it any easier than what is posted here. But I will try to compress the post into something easy to digest.
 
Earlier on we have established that Zilliqa can process transactions in parallel due to network sharding. This is where the linear scalability comes from. We can define simple transactions: a transaction from address A to B (Category 1), a transaction where a user interacts with one smart contract (Category 2) and the most complex ones where triggering a transaction results in multiple smart contracts being involved (Category 3). The shards are able to process transactions on their own without interference of the other shards. With Category 1 transactions that is doable, with Category 2 transactions sometimes if that address is in the same shard as the smart contract but with Category 3 you definitely need communication between the shards. Solving that requires to make a set of communication rules the protocol needs to follow in order to process all transactions in a generalised fashion.
 
And this is where the downsides of state sharding comes in currently. All shards in Zilliqa have access to the complete state. Yes the state size (0.1 GB at the moment) grows and all of the nodes need to store it but it also means that they don’t need to shop around for information available on other shards. Requiring more communication and adding more complexity. Computer science knowledge and/or developer knowledge required links if you want to dig further: Scilla - language grammar Scilla - Foundations for Verifiable Decentralised Computations on a Blockchain Gas Accounting NUS x Zilliqa: Smart contract language workshop
 
Easier to follow links on programming Scilla https://learnscilla.com/home Ivan on Tech
 
Roadmap / Zilliqa 2.0
 
There is no strict defined roadmap but here are topics being worked on. And via the Zilliqa website there is also more information on the projects they are working on.
 
Business & Partnerships
 
It’s not only technology in which Zilliqa seems to be excelling as their ecosystem has been expanding and starting to grow rapidly. The project is on a mission to provide OpenFinance (OpFi) to the world and Singapore is the right place to be due to its progressive regulations and futuristic thinking. Singapore has taken a proactive approach towards cryptocurrencies by introducing the Payment Services Act 2019 (PS Act). Among other things, the PS Act will regulate intermediaries dealing with certain cryptocurrencies, with a particular focus on consumer protection and anti-money laundering. It will also provide a stable regulatory licensing and operating framework for cryptocurrency entities, effectively covering all crypto businesses and exchanges based in Singapore. According to PWC 82% of the surveyed executives in Singapore reported blockchain initiatives underway and 13% of them have already brought the initiatives live to the market. There is also an increasing list of organizations that are starting to provide digital payment services. Moreover, Singaporean blockchain developers Building Cities Beyond has recently created an innovation $15 million grant to encourage development on its ecosystem. This all suggests that Singapore tries to position itself as (one of) the leading blockchain hubs in the world.
 
Zilliqa seems to already take advantage of this and recently helped launch Hg Exchange on their platform, together with financial institutions PhillipCapital, PrimePartners and Fundnel. Hg Exchange, which is now approved by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS), uses smart contracts to represent digital assets. Through Hg Exchange financial institutions worldwide can use Zilliqa's safe-by-design smart contracts to enable the trading of private equities. For example, think of companies such as Grab, Airbnb, SpaceX that are not available for public trading right now. Hg Exchange will allow investors to buy shares of private companies & unicorns and capture their value before an IPO. Anquan, the main company behind Zilliqa, has also recently announced that they became a partner and shareholder in TEN31 Bank, which is a fully regulated bank allowing for tokenization of assets and is aiming to bridge the gap between conventional banking and the blockchain world. If STOs, the tokenization of assets, and equity trading will continue to increase, then Zilliqa’s public blockchain would be the ideal candidate due to its strategic positioning, partnerships, regulatory compliance and the technology that is being built on top of it.
 
What is also very encouraging is their focus on banking the un(der)banked. They are launching a stablecoin basket starting with XSGD. As many of you know, stablecoins are currently mostly used for trading. However, Zilliqa is actively trying to broaden the use case of stablecoins. I recommend everybody to read this text that Amrit Kumar wrote (one of the co-founders). These stablecoins will be integrated in the traditional markets and bridge the gap between the crypto world and the traditional world. This could potentially revolutionize and legitimise the crypto space if retailers and companies will for example start to use stablecoins for payments or remittances, instead of it solely being used for trading.
 
Zilliqa also released their DeFi strategic roadmap (dating November 2019) which seems to be aligning well with their OpFi strategy. A non-custodial DEX is coming to Zilliqa made by Switcheo which allows cross-chain trading (atomic swaps) between ETH, EOS and ZIL based tokens. They also signed a Memorandum of Understanding for a (soon to be announced) USD stablecoin. And as Zilliqa is all about regulations and being compliant, I’m speculating on it to be a regulated USD stablecoin. Furthermore, XSGD is already created and visible on block explorer and XIDR (Indonesian Stablecoin) is also coming soon via StraitsX. Here also an overview of the Tech Stack for Financial Applications from September 2019. Further quoting Amrit Kumar on this:
 
There are two basic building blocks in DeFi/OpFi though: 1) stablecoins as you need a non-volatile currency to get access to this market and 2) a dex to be able to trade all these financial assets. The rest are built on top of these blocks.
 
So far, together with our partners and community, we have worked on developing these building blocks with XSGD as a stablecoin. We are working on bringing a USD-backed stablecoin as well. We will soon have a decentralised exchange developed by Switcheo. And with HGX going live, we are also venturing into the tokenization space. More to come in the future.”
 
Additionally, they also have this ZILHive initiative that injects capital into projects. There have been already 6 waves of various teams working on infrastructure, innovation and research, and they are not from ASEAN or Singapore only but global: see Grantees breakdown by country. Over 60 project teams from over 20 countries have contributed to Zilliqa's ecosystem. This includes individuals and teams developing wallets, explorers, developer toolkits, smart contract testing frameworks, dapps, etc. As some of you may know, Unstoppable Domains (UD) blew up when they launched on Zilliqa. UD aims to replace cryptocurrency addresses with a human-readable name and allows for uncensorable websites. Zilliqa will probably be the only one able to handle all these transactions onchain due to ability to scale and its resulting low fees which is why the UD team launched this on Zilliqa in the first place. Furthermore, Zilliqa also has a strong emphasis on security, compliance, and privacy, which is why they partnered with companies like Elliptic, ChainSecurity (part of PwC Switzerland), and Incognito. Their sister company Aqilliz (Zilliqa spelled backwards) focuses on revolutionizing the digital advertising space and is doing interesting things like using Zilliqa to track outdoor digital ads with companies like Foodpanda.
 
Zilliqa is listed on nearly all major exchanges, having several different fiat-gateways and recently have been added to Binance’s margin trading and futures trading with really good volume. They also have a very impressive team with good credentials and experience. They don't just have “tech people”. They have a mix of tech people, business people, marketeers, scientists, and more. Naturally, it's good to have a mix of people with different skill sets if you work in the crypto space.
 
Marketing & Community
 
Zilliqa has a very strong community. If you just follow their Twitter their engagement is much higher for a coin that has approximately 80k followers. They also have been ‘coin of the day’ by LunarCrush many times. LunarCrush tracks real-time cryptocurrency value and social data. According to their data, it seems Zilliqa has a more fundamental and deeper understanding of marketing and community engagement than almost all other coins. While almost all coins have been a bit frozen in the last months, Zilliqa seems to be on its own bull run. It was somewhere in the 100s a few months ago and is currently ranked #46 on CoinGecko. Their official Telegram also has over 20k people and is very active, and their community channel which is over 7k now is more active and larger than many other official channels. Their local communities also seem to be growing.
 
Moreover, their community started ‘Zillacracy’ together with the Zilliqa core team ( see www.zillacracy.com ). It’s a community-run initiative where people from all over the world are now helping with marketing and development on Zilliqa. Since its launch in February 2020 they have been doing a lot and will also run their own non-custodial seed node for staking. This seed node will also allow them to start generating revenue for them to become a self sustaining entity that could potentially scale up to become a decentralized company working in parallel with the Zilliqa core team. Comparing it to all the other smart contract platforms (e.g. Cardano, EOS, Tezos etc.) they don't seem to have started a similar initiative (correct me if I’m wrong though). This suggests in my opinion that these other smart contract platforms do not fully understand how to utilize the ‘power of the community’. This is something you cannot ‘buy with money’ and gives many projects in the space a disadvantage.
 
Zilliqa also released two social products called SocialPay and Zeeves. SocialPay allows users to earn ZILs while tweeting with a specific hashtag. They have recently used it in partnership with the Singapore Red Cross for a marketing campaign after their initial pilot program. It seems like a very valuable social product with a good use case. I can see a lot of traditional companies entering the space through this product, which they seem to suggest will happen. Tokenizing hashtags with smart contracts to get network effect is a very smart and innovative idea.
 
Regarding Zeeves, this is a tipping bot for Telegram. They already have 1000s of signups and they plan to keep upgrading it for more and more people to use it (e.g. they recently have added a quiz features). They also use it during AMAs to reward people in real-time. It’s a very smart approach to grow their communities and get familiar with ZIL. I can see this becoming very big on Telegram. This tool suggests, again, that the Zilliqa team has a deeper understanding of what the crypto space and community needs and is good at finding the right innovative tools to grow and scale.
 
To be honest, I haven’t covered everything (i’m also reaching the character limited haha). So many updates happening lately that it's hard to keep up, such as the International Monetary Fund mentioning Zilliqa in their report, custodial and non-custodial Staking, Binance Margin, Futures, Widget, entering the Indian market, and more. The Head of Marketing Colin Miles has also released this as an overview of what is coming next. And last but not least, Vitalik Buterin has been mentioning Zilliqa lately acknowledging Zilliqa and mentioning that both projects have a lot of room to grow. There is much more info of course and a good part of it has been served to you on a silver platter. I invite you to continue researching by yourself :-) And if you have any comments or questions please post here!
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[OC] If the regular season ended today, who would make your All-NBA 1st team? And 2nd team? And 3rd team? And 4th team? And 5th team? And 6th team? And 7th -- uh oh -- I think I lost my marbles... but let's keep going... 8th team? 9th team? 10th team?

Getting named as an NBA All-Star is a high honor, but being named to an All-NBA team is even rarer air. After all, only 15 players in the entire league earn that distinction. The fact that it's such an exclusive club makes it so important, so the idea of adding more players to the list would devalue it by nature. It'd be a silly, fruitless exercise, and a complete waste of time.
That said... it sure beats "reality" right now. And in the interest of escapism, let's entertain that hypothetical. Who would make your 1st team All-NBA? Your 2nd? Your 3rd? Your 4th? The challenge is get all the way up to the 10th if you can handle that test of your sanity.
For my own, I include a few caveats:
--- The NBA breaks down All-NBA spots more traditionally with frontcourt and backcourt, but I find that outdated. For mine, I'm going to include 1 "lead guard," 2 "wings," 1 "big," and 1 "flex" that can be any position. To me, that's reflective of the modern game. Most teams play with 1 guard, 3 wings, and 1 big, but there are teams that use 2 lead guards, or 2 bigs, etc.
--- The nature of basketball statistics tends to break down by game, or by minute, or even by play/possession. In the process, we tend to overlook players who are durable and add aggravate value over the course of a season. Personally, I'm going to factor in "games played" more than most would.
--- The advanced stats I'm listing are true shooting percentage and ESPN's estimated "wins added" based on their real plus/minus metric.
With all that said, let's get to the madness.
1st TEAM
GUARD: James Harden (HOU). 34.4 points, 7.4 assists, 62 TS%, +10.4 wins added
You can tell when a player has reached an historic level of greatness when no one seems to care when they're averaging over 34 points per game (on awesome efficiency.) Ho hum.
WING: LeBron James (LAL). 25.7 points, 10.6 assists, 58 TS%, +11.0 wins added
After last year's disappointment, LeBron James has come back leaner and meaner, with much better effort on D. He hasn't been attacking the paint and drawing fouls quite as well as he did in his youth, but he's adjusted his playing style and racked up a career high in assists.
WING: Giannis Antetounkmpo (MIL). 29.6 points, 13.7 rebounds, 61 TS%, +11.2 wins added
The Greek Freak's struggles at the free throw line (down to 63%) have lowered his efficiency from last year, but he's still clearly in contention for another MVP season. His point total nearly matches his minutes (30.9).
BIG: Nikola Jokic (DEN). 20.2 points, 6.9 assists, 60 TS%, +6.0 wins added
The Joker LOOKS like he should be a complete liability on defense, but the stats haven't born that out (he's +1.8 on that end in RPM.) And given that, his transcendent passing ability assists (get it???) his 1st team candidacy.
FLEX: Anthony Davis (LAL). 26.7 points, 2.4 blocks, 61 TS%, +5.2 wins added
The Lakers have vaulted into the top 3 in defense, largely due to Anthony Davis' ability to wreak havoc on that end. And keep in mind, he's leading his team in PPG as well.
2nd TEAM
GUARD: Damian Lillard (POR). 28.9 points, 7.8 assists, 62 TS%, +4.9 wins added
If it wasn't for Steph Curry and James Harden, Dame would be looking at a lot more first-team All-NBA seasons. This hasn't been Portland's best by any stretch, but it's hard to fault him for that.
WING: Luka Doncic (DAL). 28.7 points, 8.7 assists, 58 TS%, +5.9 wins added
No doubt, Luka Doncic is our toughest exclusion from the 1st team and the one I figure will be the most unpopular pick (so far.) The reason he slipped off the 1st team for me is the injury; he's played 10 less games than Nikola Jokic.
WING: Kawhi Leonard (LAC). 26.9 points, 5.0 assists, 59 TS%, +5.7 wins added
Similarly, it's always going to be tough for me to justify Kawhi on a 1st team as long as he takes off games (he's missed 13/64 so far.) Still, he should be rested and ready to go for another title campaign.
BIG: Rudy Gobert (UTA). 15.1 points, 13.7 rebounds, 70 TS%, +4.5 wins added
I wonder if Rudy Gobert's coronavirus issues will hurt him in media votes in the future. Personally, I'm just going to keep rewarding him and recognizing him as one of the most impactful players in the league.
FLEX: Jimmy Butler (MIA). 20.2 points, 6.1 assists, 58 TS%, +4.1 wins added
Jimmy Butler's struggled to score from the field this year, but his ability to draw contact and get to the line (9.1 FTA) keeps his efficiency above average. And therein, his passing and defense help boost him into this range.
3rd TEAM
GUARD: Chris Paul (OKC). 17.7 points, 6.8 assists, 61 TS%, +5.5 wins added
An incredible year all around for CP3, who has turned 35 years old this month.
WING: Jayson Tatum (BOS). 23.6 points, 7.1 rebounds, 56 TS%, +4.6 wins added
We all know him as a deadly scorer, but Jayson Tatum's added strength has helped him hang at the 4 spot on defense, which is a boon for the Celtics' small-ball/wing-ball approach.
WING: Khris Middleton (MIL). 21.1 points, 6.2 rebounds, 62 TS%, +3.7 wins added
Giannis is the engine that drives the Bucks, but having shooters like Middleton around him is key.
BIG: Pascal Siakam (TOR). 23.6 points, 3.6 assists, 56 TS%, +4.8 wins added
Without Kawhi Leonard soaking up attention, Pascal Siakam's not getting as many easy baskets (his 2-point FG% has dropped from 60.2% to 50.6%.) Still, he's a hugely valuable player on both ends of the floor. Is he a true “big?” No. But I think that term is broad enough to extend past centers and can include PFs as well for our purposes.
FLEX: Russell Westbrook (HOU). 27.5 points, 8.0 rebounds, 54 TS%, +6.0 wins added
I've never been a big Westbrook fan, but I give him credit for keeping his activity level and productivity up in a new role. He's gotten better and better as the season has gone on as well.
4th TEAM
GUARD: Ben Simmons (PHI). 16.7 points, 8.2 assists, 61 TS%, +4.2 wins added
Shooting? Still a problem. But fortunately, Ben Simmons does virtually everything else well. He can also step up his game when needed (like when Embiid is out.)
WING: Donovan Mitchell (UTA). 24.2 points, 4.2 assists, 56 TS%, +2.1 wins added
I don't know if Donovan Mitchell is truly any better than any high-scoring SGs like Devin Booker or Zach LaVine, but we have to reward him from being on a winner.
WING: Brandon Ingram (NO). 24.3 points, 6.3 rebounds, 59 TS%, +2.4 wins added
A candidate for Most Improved, Brandon Ingram helped carry his team early in the season. He'll still have to figure out his chemistry with Zion Williamson, but it's safe to say he made himself a lot of money this year.
BIG: Bam Adebayo (MIA). 16.2 points, 10.5 rebounds, 61 TS%, +3.1 wins added
Bam's ability to move the ball on offense (5+ assists) and move his feet on defense is key to the team. The scary part is: he may have another level to his game to reach.
FLEX: Devin Booker (PHX). 26.1 points, 6.6 assists, 62 TS%, +3.5 wins added
It's getting hard to blame Devin Booker for Phoenix's W-L record. He's just a flat-out stud scorer.
5th TEAM
GUARD: Trae Young (ATL). 29.6 points, 9.3 assists, 60 TS%, +3.2 wins added
Like Devin Booker, Trae Young is an offensive savant. Unfortunately, his defense is even more of an issue. He graded at -3.1 in RPM on that end, one of the worst in the entire NBA.
WING: Bradley Beal (WAS). 30.5 points, 6.1 assists, 58 TS%, +1.8 wins added
You expect Trae Young to be bad at defense, but Bradley Beal has graded surprisingly bad there as well (-2.8 RPM.) Of course, starting alongside Isaiah Thomas doesn't make that easy. Nevertheless, we had to downgrade him a few spots for the inconsistent effort there.
WING: Jaylen Brown (BOS). 20.4 points, 6.4 rebounds, 59 TS%, +3.3 wins added
Coming out of Cal, some scouts questions Jaylen Brown's feel for the game. Right now, it's hard to find many things that he doesn't do well.
BIG: Joel Embiid (PHI). 23.4 points, 11.8 rebounds, 59 TS%, +2.8 wins added
Embiid would rank higher at full strength, but he's missed about 1/3 of the season so far.
FLEX: Kyle Lowry (TOR). 19.7 points, 7.7 assists, 59 TS%, +3.2 wins added
Now age 34, Kyle Lowry continues to play very well on both ends. He's the little engine that could -- or perhaps more appropriately, the caboose.
6th TEAM
GUARD: Eric Bledsoe (MIL). 15.4 points, 5.4 assists, 58 TS%, +2.9 wins added
Eric Bledsoe gets more flak than credit, but he's still one of the best players on the best team in the league.
WING: Zach LaVine (CHI). 25.5 points, 4.2 assists, 57 TS%, +4.3 wins added
If the Bulls had a better record, Zach LaVine could have been a few spots higher. His defense isn't quite as bad as advertised either.
WING: C.J. McCollum (POR). 22.5 points, 4.3 assists, 54 TS%, +3.7 wins added
This must be the "all flak" team, because C.J. McCollum also gets blamed a lot for Portland's struggles to get over the hump. To me, Dame+CJ isn't the problem; the complete mess at the SF-PF position is to blame.
BIG: Domatas Sabonis (IND). 18.5 points, 12.4 rebounds, 59 TS%, +1.5 wins added
Arvydas' kid also has some baby Joker to his game, as his 5.0 assists are a huge part of Indiana's offense.
FLEX: Paul George (LAC). 21.0 points, 3.9 assists, 58 TS%, +2.5 wins added
Again, I'm factoring in games played more than most, and Paul George (42 GP) has missed quite a bit of time.
7th TEAM
GUARD: Kemba Walker (BOS). 21.2 points, 4.9 assists, 57 TS%, +2.5 wins added
Kemba Walker doesn't have the same workload in Boston as he did in Charlotte, and the stats reflect that. Still, he's safely one of the top 10 PGs in the league.
WING: Bojan Bogdanovic (UTA). 20.2 points, 4.1 rebounds, 60 TS%, +2.6 wins added
Here we're talking BOJAN (from Utah) and not BOGDAN (from Sacramento), although they're both good. Bogey's delivered on the three-point shooting for Utah, hitting 41.4% on 7+ attempts a game.
WING: Danilo Gallinari (OKC). 19.2 points, 5.5 rebounds, 61 TS%, +2.8 wins added
Perpetually underrated, it may be time we stop acting shocked when Gallo's teams (LAC last year, OKC this year) are better than people expect.
BIG: Karl-Anthony Towns (MIN). 26.5 points, 10.8 rebounds, 64 TS%, +2.7 wins added
KAT was among the hardest to rank for me. Offensively, he's historically great -- arguably the best shooting center of all time. The defense is an issue, of course, and the workload is what doomed him on my list. His 35 games played is our lowest total so far.
FLEX: Jrue Holiday (NO). 19.6 points, 6.9 assists, 54 TS%, +3.5 wins added
It's fitting that Jrue Holiday is listed at "flex," because he's gone from a pure point guard to a jack of all trades.
8th TEAM
GUARD: Ja Morant (MEM). 17.6 points, 6.9 assists, 57 TS%, +1.6 wins added
As the lead guard of a team, you expect Ja Morant to put up good raw stats. However, his efficiency and steadiness is remarkable for a rookie making the leap from Murray State. He also gets a boost for leading Memphis into playoff position (for now, until the NBA decides to snatch that away.)
WING: Evan Fournier (ORL). 18.8 points, 3.2 assists, 60 TS%, +2.1 wins added
Quietly, Evan Fournier is having a good season for Orlando. If you don't believe me, google it.
WING: Robert Covington (HOU). 12.8 points, 1.5 steals, 57 TS%, +2.8 wins added
Every team would love to have a low-usage 3+D forward like RoCo. Except for Philly and Minnesota, I guess.
BIG: Hassan Whiteside (POR). 16.3 points, 14.2 rebounds, 64 TS%, +2.1 wins added
This may be a controversial pick because Whiteside has become a punching bag for fans, but he may have made the rare transition from underrated to overrated (and overpaid) and back to underrated again.
FLEX: Tobias Harris (PHI). 19.4 points, 6.8 rebounds, 56 TS%, +2.1 wins added
Speaking of overpaid... Tobias Harris hasn't lived up to his giant contract yet, but he's undoubtedly a good starter to have on your team.
9th TEAM
GUARD: Spencer Dinwiddie (TOR). 20.6 points, 6.8 assists, 54 TS%, +3.0 wins added
Nothing raises your bitcoin valuation more than that sweet, sweet All-NBA 9th team trophy.
WING: Shai Gilgeous-Alexander (OKC). 19.3 points, 6.1 rebounds, 57 TS%, +2.1 wins added
Like Jrue Holiday, SGA is a point who can play "up" a position. In fact, he’s been working effectively at both SG and SF this year, as illustrated by that nice rebounding rate.
WING: Duncan Robinson (MIA). 13.3 points, 3.3 rebounds, 68 TS%, +3.0 wins added
This may be high for a one-trick pony, but that trick happens to be quite a valuable one. The unknown Robinson is hitting 44.8% of his threes (at 8.4 attempts per game.) He's a huge part of Miami's offensive gameplan.
BIG: Kristaps Porzingis (DAL). 19.2 points, 9.5 rebounds, 54 TS%, +3.9 wins added
Too high? Too low? I can't figure out Porzingis' season in Dallas so far. Still, any big who can block shots and hit threes has an inherent value.
FLEX: Dennis Schroder (OKC). 19.0 points, 4.1 assists, 57 TS%, +5.4 wins added
Perhaps the biggest surprise to OKC's success this season has been a career year for Dennis Schroder off the bench. He's even played well when paired with CP3 and SGA in the same lineup. The stats suggest that Schroder should rank even higher than this, but I'm still trying to wrap my mind around him becoming such an efficient player all of a sudden.
10th TEAM
GUARD: Lou Williams (LAC). 18.7 points, 5.7 assists, 55 TS%, +3.6 wins added
Sweet Lou has a little less to do now that Kawhi Leonard and Paul George are in town, but he's still one of the best scorers off the bench.
WING: Buddy Hield (SAC). 19.8 points, 4.8 rebounds, 57 TS%, +3.0 wins added
A NEW addition to the "scorer off the bench club," Buddy Hield deserves kudos for accepting that role as the Kings try to find a spark. He hasn't been as red-hot as he had been last season, but he's still one of the best SGs in the league.
WING: Gordon Hayward (BOS). 17.3 points, 4.1 assists, 59 TS%, +1.9 wins added
Gordon Hayward has quietly been working his way back into top form, with his ball movement and BBIQ two real feathers in his cap. He's dinged a few spots here based on missed time (he's only played 45 games.)
BIG: Montrezl Harrell (LAC). 18.6 points, 7.1 rebounds, 61 TS%, +3.6 wins added
Fittingly, Montrezl Harrell will join Lou Williams' team here. It'll be interesting to see whether Doc Rivers rolls with the two of them in crunch time during the playoffs.
FLEX: Nikola Vucevic (ORL): 19.5 points, 11.0 rebounds, 54 TS%, +2.0 wins added
It's debatable how valuable Vucevic's 20-10 seasons are because he's not a good defender and he's not a terribly efficient scorer. That said, I'm giving him credit for a high degree of difficulty here as the go-to scorer on a team that doesn't have a lot of weapons offensively.
just missed the cut
If you'd like to sub in any other players, here are some notable names:
PG FredVanVleet (TOR), PG Devonte' Graham (CHA), PG Malcolm Brogdon (IND), PG Jamal Murray, PG Lonzo Ball, PG De'Aaron Fox (SAC), PG/SG Marcus Smart (BOS), PG/SG Kendrick Nunn (MIA), SF Joe Ingles (UTA), SF Will Barton (DEN), SF DeMar DeRozan (SA), SF/PF Davis Bertans (WAS), SF/PF Aaron Gordon (ORL), PF LaMarcus Aldridge (SA), C Myles Turner (IND), C Steven Adams (OKC), C Andre Drummond (CLE), C Jarrett Allen (BKN), C Derrick Favors (NO), C Jonas Valanciunas (MEM), C Brook Lopez (MIL). And of course, we need an obligatory Zion Williamson (NO) mention, although his 19 games played is a tough hurdle to overcome.
submitted by ZandrickEllison to nba [link] [comments]

Why i’m bullish on Zilliqa (long read)

Hey all, I've been researching coins since 2017 and have gone through 100s of them in the last 3 years. I got introduced to blockchain via Bitcoin of course, analysed Ethereum thereafter and from that moment I have a keen interest in smart contact platforms. I’m passionate about Ethereum but I find Zilliqa to have a better risk reward ratio. Especially because Zilliqa has found an elegant balance between being secure, decentralised and scalable in my opinion.
 
Below I post my analysis why from all the coins I went through I’m most bullish on Zilliqa (yes I went through Tezos, EOS, NEO, VeChain, Harmony, Algorand, Cardano etc.). Note that this is not investment advice and although it's a thorough analysis there is obviously some bias involved. Looking forward to what you all think!
 
Fun fact: the name Zilliqa is a play on ‘silica’ silicon dioxide which means “Silicon for the high-throughput consensus computer.”
 
This post is divided into (i) Technology, (ii) Business & Partnerships, and (iii) Marketing & Community. I’ve tried to make the technology part readable for a broad audience. If you’ve ever tried understanding the inner workings of Bitcoin and Ethereum you should be able to grasp most parts. Otherwise just skim through and once you are zoning out head to the next part.
 
Technology and some more:
 
Introduction The technology is one of the main reasons why I’m so bullish on Zilliqa. First thing you see on their website is: “Zilliqa is a high-performance, high-security blockchain platform for enterprises and next-generation applications.” These are some bold statements.
 
Before we deep dive into the technology let’s take a step back in time first as they have quite the history. The initial research paper from which Zilliqa originated dates back to August 2016: Elastico: A Secure Sharding Protocol For Open Blockchains where Loi Luu (Kyber Network) is one of the co-authors. Other ideas that led to the development of what Zilliqa has become today are: Bitcoin-NG, collective signing CoSi, ByzCoin and Omniledger.
 
The technical white paper was made public in August 2017 and since then they have achieved everything stated in the white paper and also created their own open source intermediate level smart contract language called Scilla (functional programming language similar to OCaml) too.
 
Mainnet is live since end of January 2019 with daily transaction rate growing continuously. About a week ago mainnet reached 5 million transactions, 500.000+ addresses in total along with 2400 nodes keeping the network decentralised and secure. Circulating supply is nearing 11 billion and currently only mining rewards are left. Maximum supply is 21 billion with annual inflation being 7.13% currently and will only decrease with time.
 
Zilliqa realised early on that the usage of public cryptocurrencies and smart contracts were increasing but decentralised, secure and scalable alternatives were lacking in the crypto space. They proposed to apply sharding onto a public smart contract blockchain where the transaction rate increases almost linear with the increase in amount of nodes. More nodes = higher transaction throughput and increased decentralisation. Sharding comes in many forms and Zilliqa uses network-, transaction- and computational sharding. Network sharding opens up the possibility of using transaction- and computational sharding on top. Zilliqa does not use state sharding for now. We’ll come back to this later.
 
Before we continue disecting how Zilliqa achieves such from a technological standpoint it’s good to keep in mind that a blockchain being decentralised and secure and scalable is still one of the main hurdles in allowing widespread usage of decentralised networks. In my opinion this needs to be solved first before blockchains can get to the point where they can create and add large scale value. So I invite you to read the next section to grasp the underlying fundamentals. Because after all these premises need to be true otherwise there isn’t a fundamental case to be bullish on Zilliqa, right?
 
Down the rabbit hole
 
How have they achieved this? Let’s define the basics first: key players on Zilliqa are the users and the miners. A user is anybody who uses the blockchain to transfer funds or run smart contracts. Miners are the (shard) nodes in the network who run the consensus protocol and get rewarded for their service in Zillings (ZIL). The mining network is divided into several smaller networks called shards, which is also referred to as ‘network sharding’. Miners subsequently are randomly assigned to a shard by another set of miners called DS (Directory Service) nodes. The regular shards process transactions and the outputs of these shards are eventually combined by the DS shard as they reach consensus on the final state. More on how these DS shards reach consensus (via pBFT) will be explained later on.
 
The Zilliqa network produces two types of blocks: DS blocks and Tx blocks. One DS Block consists of 100 Tx Blocks. And as previously mentioned there are two types of nodes concerned with reaching consensus: shard nodes and DS nodes. Becoming a shard node or DS node is being defined by the result of a PoW cycle (Ethash) at the beginning of the DS Block. All candidate mining nodes compete with each other and run the PoW (Proof-of-Work) cycle for 60 seconds and the submissions achieving the highest difficulty will be allowed on the network. And to put it in perspective: the average difficulty for one DS node is ~ 2 Th/s equaling 2.000.000 Mh/s or 55 thousand+ GeForce GTX 1070 / 8 GB GPUs at 35.4 Mh/s. Each DS Block 10 new DS nodes are allowed. And a shard node needs to provide around 8.53 GH/s currently (around 240 GTX 1070s). Dual mining ETH/ETC and ZIL is possible and can be done via mining software such as Phoenix and Claymore. There are pools and if you have large amounts of hashing power (Ethash) available you could mine solo.
 
The PoW cycle of 60 seconds is a peak performance and acts as an entry ticket to the network. The entry ticket is called a sybil resistance mechanism and makes it incredibly hard for adversaries to spawn lots of identities and manipulate the network with these identities. And after every 100 Tx Blocks which corresponds to roughly 1,5 hour this PoW process repeats. In between these 1,5 hour no PoW needs to be done meaning Zilliqa’s energy consumption to keep the network secure is low. For more detailed information on how mining works click here.
Okay, hats off to you. You have made it this far. Before we go any deeper down the rabbit hole we first must understand why Zilliqa goes through all of the above technicalities and understand a bit more what a blockchain on a more fundamental level is. Because the core of Zilliqa’s consensus protocol relies on the usage of pBFT (practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance) we need to know more about state machines and their function. Navigate to Viewblock, a Zilliqa block explorer, and just come back to this article. We will use this site to navigate through a few concepts.
 
We have established that Zilliqa is a public and distributed blockchain. Meaning that everyone with an internet connection can send ZILs, trigger smart contracts etc. and there is no central authority who fully controls the network. Zilliqa and other public and distributed blockchains (like Bitcoin and Ethereum) can also be defined as state machines.
 
Taking the liberty of paraphrasing examples and definitions given by Samuel Brooks’ medium article, he describes the definition of a blockchain (like Zilliqa) as:
“A peer-to-peer, append-only datastore that uses consensus to synchronise cryptographically-secure data”.
 
Next he states that: >“blockchains are fundamentally systems for managing valid state transitions”.* For some more context, I recommend reading the whole medium article to get a better grasp of the definitions and understanding of state machines. Nevertheless, let’s try to simplify and compile it into a single paragraph. Take traffic lights as an example: all its states (red, amber and green) are predefined, all possible outcomes are known and it doesn’t matter if you encounter the traffic light today or tomorrow. It will still behave the same. Managing the states of a traffic light can be done by triggering a sensor on the road or pushing a button resulting in one traffic lights’ state going from green to red (via amber) and another light from red to green.
 
With public blockchains like Zilliqa this isn’t so straightforward and simple. It started with block #1 almost 1,5 years ago and every 45 seconds or so a new block linked to the previous block is being added. Resulting in a chain of blocks with transactions in it that everyone can verify from block #1 to the current #647.000+ block. The state is ever changing and the states it can find itself in are infinite. And while the traffic light might work together in tandem with various other traffic lights, it’s rather insignificant comparing it to a public blockchain. Because Zilliqa consists of 2400 nodes who need to work together to achieve consensus on what the latest valid state is while some of these nodes may have latency or broadcast issues, drop offline or are deliberately trying to attack the network etc.
 
Now go back to the Viewblock page take a look at the amount of transaction, addresses, block and DS height and then hit refresh. Obviously as expected you see new incremented values on one or all parameters. And how did the Zilliqa blockchain manage to transition from a previous valid state to the latest valid state? By using pBFT to reach consensus on the latest valid state.
 
After having obtained the entry ticket, miners execute pBFT to reach consensus on the ever changing state of the blockchain. pBFT requires a series of network communication between nodes, and as such there is no GPU involved (but CPU). Resulting in the total energy consumed to keep the blockchain secure, decentralised and scalable being low.
 
pBFT stands for practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance and is an optimisation on the Byzantine Fault Tolerant algorithm. To quote Blockonomi: “In the context of distributed systems, Byzantine Fault Tolerance is the ability of a distributed computer network to function as desired and correctly reach a sufficient consensus despite malicious components (nodes) of the system failing or propagating incorrect information to other peers.” Zilliqa is such a distributed computer network and depends on the honesty of the nodes (shard and DS) to reach consensus and to continuously update the state with the latest block. If pBFT is a new term for you I can highly recommend the Blockonomi article.
 
The idea of pBFT was introduced in 1999 - one of the authors even won a Turing award for it - and it is well researched and applied in various blockchains and distributed systems nowadays. If you want more advanced information than the Blockonomi link provides click here. And if you’re in between Blockonomi and University of Singapore read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 2 dating from October 2017.
Quoting from the Zilliqa tech whitepaper: “pBFT relies upon a correct leader (which is randomly selected) to begin each phase and proceed when the sufficient majority exists. In case the leader is byzantine it can stall the entire consensus protocol. To address this challenge, pBFT offers a view change protocol to replace the byzantine leader with another one.”
 
pBFT can tolerate ⅓ of the nodes being dishonest (offline counts as Byzantine = dishonest) and the consensus protocol will function without stalling or hiccups. Once there are more than ⅓ of dishonest nodes but no more than ⅔ the network will be stalled and a view change will be triggered to elect a new DS leader. Only when more than ⅔ of the nodes are dishonest (>66%) double spend attacks become possible.
 
If the network stalls no transactions can be processed and one has to wait until a new honest leader has been elected. When the mainnet was just launched and in its early phases, view changes happened regularly. As of today the last stalling of the network - and view change being triggered - was at the end of October 2019.
 
Another benefit of using pBFT for consensus besides low energy is the immediate finality it provides. Once your transaction is included in a block and the block is added to the chain it’s done. Lastly, take a look at this article where three types of finality are being defined: probabilistic, absolute and economic finality. Zilliqa falls under the absolute finality (just like Tendermint for example). Although lengthy already we skipped through some of the inner workings from Zilliqa’s consensus: read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 3 and you will be close to having a complete picture on it. Enough about PoW, sybil resistance mechanism, pBFT etc. Another thing we haven’t looked at yet is the amount of decentralisation.
 
Decentralisation
 
Currently there are four shards, each one of them consisting of 600 nodes. 1 shard with 600 so called DS nodes (Directory Service - they need to achieve a higher difficulty than shard nodes) and 1800 shard nodes of which 250 are shard guards (centralised nodes controlled by the team). The amount of shard guards has been steadily declining from 1200 in January 2019 to 250 as of May 2020. On the Viewblock statistics you can see that many of the nodes are being located in the US but those are only the (CPU parts of the) shard nodes who perform pBFT. There is no data from where the PoW sources are coming. And when the Zilliqa blockchain starts reaching their transaction capacity limit, a network upgrade needs to be executed to lift the current cap of maximum 2400 nodes to allow more nodes and formation of more shards which will allow to network to keep on scaling according to demand.
Besides shard nodes there are also seed nodes. The main role of seed nodes is to serve as direct access points (for end users and clients) to the core Zilliqa network that validates transactions. Seed nodes consolidate transaction requests and forward these to the lookup nodes (another type of nodes) for distribution to the shards in the network. Seed nodes also maintain the entire transaction history and the global state of the blockchain which is needed to provide services such as block explorers. Seed nodes in the Zilliqa network are comparable to Infura on Ethereum.
 
The seed nodes were first only operated by Zilliqa themselves, exchanges and Viewblock. Operators of seed nodes like exchanges had no incentive to open them for the greater public.They were centralised at first. Decentralisation at the seed nodes level has been steadily rolled out since March 2020 ( Zilliqa Improvement Proposal 3 ). Currently the amount of seed nodes is being increased, they are public facing and at the same time PoS is applied to incentivize seed node operators and make it possible for ZIL holders to stake and earn passive yields. Important distinction: seed nodes are not involved with consensus! That is still PoW as entry ticket and pBFT for the actual consensus.
 
5% of the block rewards are being assigned to seed nodes (from the beginning in 2019) and those are being used to pay out ZIL stakers.The 5% block rewards with an annual yield of 10.03% translates to roughly 610 MM ZILs in total that can be staked. Exchanges use the custodial variant of staking and wallets like Moonlet will use the non custodial version (starting in Q3 2020). Staking is being done by sending ZILs to a smart contract created by Zilliqa and audited by Quantstamp.
 
With a high amount of DS & shard nodes and seed nodes becoming more decentralised too, Zilliqa qualifies for the label of decentralised in my opinion.
 
Smart contracts
 
Let me start by saying I’m not a developer and my programming skills are quite limited. So I‘m taking the ELI5 route (maybe 12) but if you are familiar with Javascript, Solidity or specifically OCaml please head straight to Scilla - read the docs to get a good initial grasp of how Zilliqa’s smart contract language Scilla works and if you ask yourself “why another programming language?” check this article. And if you want to play around with some sample contracts in an IDE click here. Faucet can be found here. And more information on architecture, dapp development and API can be found on the Developer Portal.
If you are more into listening and watching: check this recent webinar explaining Zilliqa and Scilla. Link is time stamped so you’ll start right away with a platform introduction, R&D roadmap 2020 and afterwards a proper Scilla introduction.
 
Generalised: programming languages can be divided into being ‘object oriented’ or ‘functional’. Here is an ELI5 given by software development academy: > “all programmes have two basic components, data – what the programme knows – and behaviour – what the programme can do with that data. So object-oriented programming states that combining data and related behaviours in one place, is called “object”, which makes it easier to understand how a particular program works. On the other hand, functional programming argues that data and behaviour are different things and should be separated to ensure their clarity.”
 
Scilla is on the functional side and shares similarities with OCaml: > OCaml is a general purpose programming language with an emphasis on expressiveness and safety. It has an advanced type system that helps catch your mistakes without getting in your way. It's used in environments where a single mistake can cost millions and speed matters, is supported by an active community, and has a rich set of libraries and development tools. For all its power, OCaml is also pretty simple, which is one reason it's often used as a teaching language.
 
Scilla is blockchain agnostic, can be implemented onto other blockchains as well, is recognised by academics and won a so called Distinguished Artifact Award award at the end of last year.
 
One of the reasons why the Zilliqa team decided to create their own programming language focused on preventing smart contract vulnerabilities safety is that adding logic on a blockchain, programming, means that you cannot afford to make mistakes. Otherwise it could cost you. It’s all great and fun blockchains being immutable but updating your code because you found a bug isn’t the same as with a regular web application for example. And with smart contracts it inherently involves cryptocurrencies in some form thus value.
 
Another difference with programming languages on a blockchain is gas. Every transaction you do on a smart contract platform like Zilliqa for Ethereum costs gas. With gas you basically pay for computational costs. Sending a ZIL from address A to address B costs 0.001 ZIL currently. Smart contracts are more complex, often involve various functions and require more gas (if gas is a new concept click here ).
 
So with Scilla, similar to Solidity, you need to make sure that “every function in your smart contract will run as expected without hitting gas limits. An improper resource analysis may lead to situations where funds may get stuck simply because a part of the smart contract code cannot be executed due to gas limits. Such constraints are not present in traditional software systems”. Scilla design story part 1
 
Some examples of smart contract issues you’d want to avoid are: leaking funds, ‘unexpected changes to critical state variables’ (example: someone other than you setting his or her address as the owner of the smart contract after creation) or simply killing a contract.
 
Scilla also allows for formal verification. Wikipedia to the rescue:
In the context of hardware and software systems, formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of intended algorithms underlying a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property, using formal methods of mathematics.
 
Formal verification can be helpful in proving the correctness of systems such as: cryptographic protocols, combinational circuits, digital circuits with internal memory, and software expressed as source code.
 
Scilla is being developed hand-in-hand with formalization of its semantics and its embedding into the Coq proof assistant — a state-of-the art tool for mechanized proofs about properties of programs.”
 
Simply put, with Scilla and accompanying tooling developers can be mathematically sure and proof that the smart contract they’ve written does what he or she intends it to do.
 
Smart contract on a sharded environment and state sharding
 
There is one more topic I’d like to touch on: smart contract execution in a sharded environment (and what is the effect of state sharding). This is a complex topic. I’m not able to explain it any easier than what is posted here. But I will try to compress the post into something easy to digest.
 
Earlier on we have established that Zilliqa can process transactions in parallel due to network sharding. This is where the linear scalability comes from. We can define simple transactions: a transaction from address A to B (Category 1), a transaction where a user interacts with one smart contract (Category 2) and the most complex ones where triggering a transaction results in multiple smart contracts being involved (Category 3). The shards are able to process transactions on their own without interference of the other shards. With Category 1 transactions that is doable, with Category 2 transactions sometimes if that address is in the same shard as the smart contract but with Category 3 you definitely need communication between the shards. Solving that requires to make a set of communication rules the protocol needs to follow in order to process all transactions in a generalised fashion.
 
And this is where the downsides of state sharding comes in currently. All shards in Zilliqa have access to the complete state. Yes the state size (0.1 GB at the moment) grows and all of the nodes need to store it but it also means that they don’t need to shop around for information available on other shards. Requiring more communication and adding more complexity. Computer science knowledge and/or developer knowledge required links if you want to dig further: Scilla - language grammar Scilla - Foundations for Verifiable Decentralised Computations on a Blockchain Gas Accounting NUS x Zilliqa: Smart contract language workshop
 
Easier to follow links on programming Scilla https://learnscilla.com/home Ivan on Tech
 
Roadmap / Zilliqa 2.0
 
There is no strict defined roadmap but here are topics being worked on. And via the Zilliqa website there is also more information on the projects they are working on.
 
Business & Partnerships  
It’s not only technology in which Zilliqa seems to be excelling as their ecosystem has been expanding and starting to grow rapidly. The project is on a mission to provide OpenFinance (OpFi) to the world and Singapore is the right place to be due to its progressive regulations and futuristic thinking. Singapore has taken a proactive approach towards cryptocurrencies by introducing the Payment Services Act 2019 (PS Act). Among other things, the PS Act will regulate intermediaries dealing with certain cryptocurrencies, with a particular focus on consumer protection and anti-money laundering. It will also provide a stable regulatory licensing and operating framework for cryptocurrency entities, effectively covering all crypto businesses and exchanges based in Singapore. According to PWC 82% of the surveyed executives in Singapore reported blockchain initiatives underway and 13% of them have already brought the initiatives live to the market. There is also an increasing list of organisations that are starting to provide digital payment services. Moreover, Singaporean blockchain developers Building Cities Beyond has recently created an innovation $15 million grant to encourage development on its ecosystem. This all suggest that Singapore tries to position itself as (one of) the leading blockchain hubs in the world.
 
Zilliqa seems to already taking advantage of this and recently helped launch Hg Exchange on their platform, together with financial institutions PhillipCapital, PrimePartners and Fundnel. Hg Exchange, which is now approved by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS), uses smart contracts to represent digital assets. Through Hg Exchange financial institutions worldwide can use Zilliqa's safe-by-design smart contracts to enable the trading of private equities. For example, think of companies such as Grab, AirBnB, SpaceX that are not available for public trading right now. Hg Exchange will allow investors to buy shares of private companies & unicorns and capture their value before an IPO. Anquan, the main company behind Zilliqa, has also recently announced that they became a partner and shareholder in TEN31 Bank, which is a fully regulated bank allowing for tokenization of assets and is aiming to bridge the gap between conventional banking and the blockchain world. If STOs, the tokenization of assets, and equity trading will continue to increase, then Zilliqa’s public blockchain would be the ideal candidate due to its strategic positioning, partnerships, regulatory compliance and the technology that is being built on top of it.
 
What is also very encouraging is their focus on banking the un(der)banked. They are launching a stablecoin basket starting with XSGD. As many of you know, stablecoins are currently mostly used for trading. However, Zilliqa is actively trying to broaden the use case of stablecoins. I recommend everybody to read this text that Amrit Kumar wrote (one of the co-founders). These stablecoins will be integrated in the traditional markets and bridge the gap between the crypto world and the traditional world. This could potentially revolutionize and legitimise the crypto space if retailers and companies will for example start to use stablecoins for payments or remittances, instead of it solely being used for trading.
 
Zilliqa also released their DeFi strategic roadmap (dating November 2019) which seems to be aligning well with their OpFi strategy. A non-custodial DEX is coming to Zilliqa made by Switcheo which allows cross-chain trading (atomic swaps) between ETH, EOS and ZIL based tokens. They also signed a Memorandum of Understanding for a (soon to be announced) USD stablecoin. And as Zilliqa is all about regulations and being compliant, I’m speculating on it to be a regulated USD stablecoin. Furthermore, XSGD is already created and visible on block explorer and XIDR (Indonesian Stablecoin) is also coming soon via StraitsX. Here also an overview of the Tech Stack for Financial Applications from September 2019. Further quoting Amrit Kumar on this:
 
There are two basic building blocks in DeFi/OpFi though: 1) stablecoins as you need a non-volatile currency to get access to this market and 2) a dex to be able to trade all these financial assets. The rest are build on top of these blocks.
 
So far, together with our partners and community, we have worked on developing these building blocks with XSGD as a stablecoin. We are working on bringing a USD-backed stablecoin as well. We will soon have a decentralised exchange developed by Switcheo. And with HGX going live, we are also venturing into the tokenization space. More to come in the future.”*
 
Additionally, they also have this ZILHive initiative that injects capital into projects. There have been already 6 waves of various teams working on infrastructure, innovation and research, and they are not from ASEAN or Singapore only but global: see Grantees breakdown by country. Over 60 project teams from over 20 countries have contributed to Zilliqa's ecosystem. This includes individuals and teams developing wallets, explorers, developer toolkits, smart contract testing frameworks, dapps, etc. As some of you may know, Unstoppable Domains (UD) blew up when they launched on Zilliqa. UD aims to replace cryptocurrency addresses with a human readable name and allows for uncensorable websites. Zilliqa will probably be the only one able to handle all these transactions onchain due to ability to scale and its resulting low fees which is why the UD team launched this on Zilliqa in the first place. Furthermore, Zilliqa also has a strong emphasis on security, compliance, and privacy, which is why they partnered with companies like Elliptic, ChainSecurity (part of PwC Switzerland), and Incognito. Their sister company Aqilliz (Zilliqa spelled backwards) focuses on revolutionizing the digital advertising space and is doing interesting things like using Zilliqa to track outdoor digital ads with companies like Foodpanda.
 
Zilliqa is listed on nearly all major exchanges, having several different fiat-gateways and recently have been added to Binance’s margin trading and futures trading with really good volume. They also have a very impressive team with good credentials and experience. They dont just have “tech people”. They have a mix of tech people, business people, marketeers, scientists, and more. Naturally, it's good to have a mix of people with different skill sets if you work in the crypto space.
 
Marketing & Community
 
Zilliqa has a very strong community. If you just follow their Twitter their engagement is much higher for a coin that has approximately 80k followers. They also have been ‘coin of the day’ by LunarCrush many times. LunarCrush tracks real-time cryptocurrency value and social data. According to their data it seems Zilliqa has a more fundamental and deeper understanding of marketing and community engagement than almost all other coins. While almost all coins have been a bit frozen in the last months, Zilliqa seems to be on its own bull run. It was somewhere in the 100s a few months ago and is currently ranked #46 on CoinGecko. Their official Telegram also has over 20k people and is very active, and their community channel which is over 7k now is more active and larger than many other official channels. Their local communities) also seem to be growing.
 
Moreover, their community started ‘Zillacracy’ together with the Zilliqa core team ( see www.zillacracy.com ). It’s a community run initiative where people from all over the world are now helping with marketing and development on Zilliqa. Since its launch in February 2020 they have been doing a lot and will also run their own non custodial seed node for staking. This seed node will also allow them to start generating revenue for them to become a self sustaining entity that could potentially scale up to become a decentralized company working in parallel with the Zilliqa core team. Comparing it to all the other smart contract platforms (e.g. Cardano, EOS, Tezos etc.) they don't seem to have started a similar initiatives (correct me if I’m wrong though). This suggest in my opinion that these other smart contract platforms do not fully understand how to utilize the ‘power of the community’. This is something you cannot ‘buy with money’ and gives many projects in the space a disadvantage.
 
Zilliqa also released two social products called SocialPay and Zeeves. SocialPay allows users to earn ZILs while tweeting with a specific hashtag. They have recently used it in partnership with the Singapore Red Cross for a marketing campaign after their initial pilot program. It seems like a very valuable social product with a good use case. I can see a lot of traditional companies entering the space through this product, which they seem to suggest will happen. Tokenizing hashtags with smart contracts to get network effect is a very smart and innovative idea.
 
Regarding Zeeves, this is a tipping bot for Telegram. They already have 1000s of signups and they plan to keep upgrading it for more and more people to use it (e.g. they recently have added a quiz features). They also use it during AMAs to reward people in real time. It’s a very smart approach to grow their communities and get familiar with ZIL. I can see this becoming very big on Telegram. This tool suggests, again, that the Zilliqa team has a deeper understanding what the crypto space and community needs and is good at finding the right innovative tools to grow and scale.
 
To be honest, I haven’t covered everything (i’m also reaching the character limited haha). So many updates happening lately that it's hard to keep up, such as the International Monetary Fund mentioning Zilliqa in their report, custodial and non-custodial Staking, Binance Margin, Futures & Widget, entering the Indian market, and more. The Head of Marketing Colin Miles has also released this as an overview of what is coming next. And last but not least, Vitalik Buterin has been mentioning Zilliqa lately acknowledging Zilliqa and mentioning that both projects have a lot of room to grow. There is much more info of course and a good part of it has been served to you on a silver platter. I invite you to continue researching by yourself :-) And if you have any comments or questions please post here!
submitted by haveyouheardaboutit to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

US digital dollar coming soon? Chainlink, Swift, Federal Reserve, ISO20222, and The Clearing House serving as pieces of the puzzle.

This is my first Reddit thread, so please feel free to contribute your thoughts.
I believe the US digital dollar will be making its debut very soon, which could very well likely be the next One World Currency. I've included a timeline of public releases/announcements that fall in line with my theory. Bear with me, there are lot of moving parts.... There may be some details or insights missing so please feel free to enlighten. I believe this will, in time, lead to a New World Order with one global currency. I would like to be proven wrong.
First things first, there are 3 big players: The Federal Reserve, The Clearing House, and SWIFT with ISO20222 system.
Who is The Clearing House group? Conglomerate of many LARGE banks. Source: https://www.theclearinghouse.org/about/owner-banks
What is CHIPS? The Clearing House Interbank Payments System (CHIPS) is an electronic payments system that transfers funds and settles transactions in U.S. dollars. CHIPS enables banks to transfer and settle international payments more quickly by replacing official bank checks with electronic bookkeeping entries. As of January 2002, CHIPS had 59 members, including large U.S. banks and U.S. branches of foreign banks. Source: https://www.newyorkfed.org/aboutthefed/fedpoint/fed36.html
What is ISO20222? From Swift itself, "ISO 20022 is an emerging global and open standard for payments messaging. It creates a common language and model for payments data across the globe."Source: https://www.swift.com/standards/about-iso-20022
July 16 2018, Federal Reserve Proposes ISO 20022 Message Format for Fedwire Funds Service. 3-step Phase integration of CHIPS & Fedwire. Source: https://www.sullcrom.com/files/upload/SC-Publication-Federal-Reserve-Proposes-ISO-20022-Message-Format-for-Fedwire.pdf
Timeline of 3-step phase model infographic: https://imgur.com/XaNUcR3
July 19 2018, Assocation of Financial Professionals confirms above with article: NY Fed creates group to consider adopting ISO20222: "In 2012, the New York Fed formed a stakeholder group to assess the value in adopting ISO 20022. This led to the 2015 Strategies for Improving the Payment System paper, in which the Fed recommended that the U.S. develop a strategy for adopting the standard. Since that time, the Fed and The Clearing House (TCH) have worked together on plans to adopt ISO 20022 for Fedwire and CHIPS. While they have each opted to implement the standard separately, the Fed and TCH plan to align the implementation of the new format on Fedwire and CHIPS." Source: https://www.afponline.org/ideas-inspiration/topics/articles/Details/fed-seeks-comment-on-iso-20022-fedwire-proposal
Nov 20 2019, The Federal Reserve is looking into developing a digital currency in the US, Powell confirms. Source: https://markets.businessinsider.com/news/stocks/the-federal-reserve-is-looking-into-developing-digital-currency-us-2019-11-1028705211
Nov 25 2019, Coinbase Chief Legal Officer argued private corporations are best positioned to build a much-debated digital U.S. dollar, and that the government should stand back and let them, doing little, if anything, to regulate their underlying blockchains. Source: https://www.coindesk.com/coinbase-legal-chief-says-private-sector-should-build-us-digital-dollar
Jan 16 2020, Former CFTC chair launches US digital dollar research project. https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20200116005116/en/CFTC-Chair-Launches-Digital-Dollar-Project
Feb 6 2020, Federal Reserve researching US digital dollar (CBDC- Central Bank Digital Currency) application. Source: https://www.coindesk.com/fed-reserve-is-researching-dlt-based-digital-dollar-says-governor
Feb 20 2020, "To give consumers more control over their data, FMR LLC, the parent company of Fidelity Investments, today announced the spin-off of Akoya℠ as an independent company that will be jointly owned by Fidelity, The Clearing House Payments Co. and 11 of its member banks. Bank of America, Capital One, Citi, FMR LLC, the parent company of Fidelity Investments, Huntington National Bank, JPMorgan Chase, KeyBank, PNC Bank, The Clearing House Payments Co., TD Bank, Truist, U.S. Bank and Wells Fargo & Company, are the new owners of Akoya." Source: https://www.theclearinghouse.org/payment-systems/articles/2020/02/02-20-2020-financial-industry-give-consumers-more-control-over-their-data
March 16 2020, Coinbase Chief Legal Officer begins to work at NY Fed: "Coinbase's chief legal officer, Brian Brooks, is leaving the crypto exchange to become the second in command at the U.S. Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC)". Source: https://www.coindesk.com/coinbase-chief-legal-officer-leaves-to-take-senior-role-at-us-bank-regulator
March 2020, 2020 SWIFT attempting to bring entire banking payment processing industry to IS20222 standard: "In line with that vision, SWIFT is fully committed to improving transaction data quality through ISO 20022 and will continue to accelerate industry support to adopt ISO 20022 for market infrastructure initiatives, including TARGET2 migration/ESMIG, EURO1 and Bank of England RTGS renewal. .... The end-date to enable full ISO 20022 for cross-border payments remains as originally planned, November 2025." https://www.swift.com/standards/iso-20022-programme/timeline
March 20 2020, Fed-backed digital dollar to be well received by crypto-community with digital dollar being viewed as compliment, rather than a competitor to bitcoin. Source: https://www.marketwatch.com/story/bitcoin-enthusiasts-liberal-lawmakers-cheer-a-fed-backed-digital-dollar-2020-03-30
March 23 2020, COVID 19 pandemic leads to Stimulus Bill which includes proposed digital wallets for Stimilus Bill moneys to be distributed to people who do not have bank accounts currently. Ultimately, the digital wallets section was not included in signed bills but likely will resurface again shortly. Source: https://cointelegraph.com/news/in-covid-19-stimulus-us-congress-eyes-digital-dollar-to-send-aid-to-the-unbanked
March 30 2020, Bitcoin enthusiasts, liberal lawmakers cheer a Fed-backed digital dollar. “My legislation would allow every American to set up a free bank account so they don’t have to rely on expensive check cashers to access their hard-earned money,” Sen. Brown told the American Banker. While a digital dollar didn’t make it into the final stimulus legislation, that it concept is now being taken seriously by high-profile lawmakers in Washington is another signpost on the road to a digital-money future, said Carlos Domingo, CEO of Securitize. “The question is not if a digital dollar will be created but when and how.” Source: https://www.marketwatch.com/story/bitcoin-enthusiasts-liberal-lawmakers-cheer-a-fed-backed-digital-dollar-2020-03-30.
April 5 2020, NetCents Declares Readiness for Expected US Federal Reserve "Digital Dollar". Source: https://yhoo.it/34jPL0d
April 8 2020, Marion Laboure, Macro Strategist of DeutscheBank just tweeted this. Confirmation of Big Banks making big moves. One world currency coming soon by 2025? Source: https://twitter.com/MarionLaboure/status/1241316697128214529?s=20
The Clearing House will soon launch Secure Token Exchange (STE), a service to manage token issuance and authentication for mobile and ecommerce transactions. Source: https://www.theclearinghouse.org/payment-systems/secure-token-exchange
The Clearing House confirms their new RTP network through job posting on The Clearing House career website that's aim is to provide instant access to ALL account holders inUS. From their job listing: "The The RTP® network from The Clearing House is a real-time payments platform that all federally insured U.S. depository institutions are eligible to use for payments innovation. "The goal of the system is to ultimately provide access to instant payments to every financial institution and account holder in the US. To achieve this goal, significant enhancements and expansion of the system will occur over the next 3-5 years in order to support over 10,000 financial institutions. Qualifications Desired: Money transfer experience, especially knowledge of SWIFT, FED or CHIPS payment processing and settlement" This is stated in current job opening listed under "RTP Senior Developer" at The Clearing House. Source: https://www.theclearinghouse.org/about/careers/rtp-senior-developer. Screenshot of position in case this link dissappears: https://imgur.com/wr2Zoap
submitted by DanielGONZZZ to Chainlink [link] [comments]

[Part - 36] Large college ebooks/eTextbooks thread for cheap rates [$4 to $25]

  1. Microelectronic Circuits, 6th Edition: Adel S. Sedra & Kenneth C. Smith
  2. Concepts and Case Analysis in the Law of Contracts, (Concepts and Insights) 7th Edition: Marvin Chirelstein
  3. The Unfinished Nation: A Concise History of the American People, 6th Edition: Alan Brinkley
  4. Oxford Textbook of Palliative Nursing, 5th Edition: Betty Rolling Ferrell & Judith A. Paice
  5. Principles of Integrated Marketing Communications, 1st Edition: Lawrence Ang
  6. Direct Social Work Practice (Social Work in the New Century), 1st Edition: Mary C. Ruffolo
  7. Manufacturing Processes for Design Professionals, Reprint Edition: Rob Thompson
  8. Nursing: Scope and Standards of Practice, 3rd Edition: American Nurses Association
  9. Discovering Psychology, 8th Edition: Sandra E. Hockenbury & Susan A. Nolan
  10. Economics: Theory and Practice, 11th Edition: Patrick J. Welch & Gerry F. Welch
  11. Gardner's Art through the Ages: Backpack Edition, Book A: Antiquity, 15th Edition: Fred S. Kleiner
  12. Fundamentals of Financial Management, Concise 7th Edition: Eugene F. Brigham & Joel F. Houston
  13. Police Administration: Structures, Processes, and Behavior, 9th Edition: Charles R. Swanson & Leonard J. Territo & Robert W. Taylor
  14. South-Western Federal Taxation 2020: Individual Income Taxes, 43rd Edition: James C. Young & Annette Nellen & William H. Hoffman & William A. Raabe & David M. Maloney
  15. The Traumatized Brain: A Family Guide to Understanding Mood, Memory, and Behavior after Brain Injury, 1st Edition: Vani Rao & Sandeep Vaishnavi
  16. The Practice of Computing Using Python, 3rd Edition: William F. Punch & Richard Enbody
  17. Cognition: Exploring the Science of the Mind, 6th Edition: Daniel Reisberg
  18. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 7th Edition: Sue C. Wortham & Belinda J. Hardin
  19. Drugs in American Society, 10th Edition: Erich Goode
  20. Essentials of Psychology: Concepts and Applications, 5th Edition: Jeffrey S. Nevid
  21. The Curious Researcher: A Guide to Writing Research Papers, 9th Edition: Bruce Ballenger
  22. Introduction to Radiologic Technology, 7th Edition: La Verne Tolley Gurley & William J. Callaway
  23. Organic Chemistry, 7th Edition: William H. Brown & Brent L. Iverson & Eric Anslyn & Christopher S. Foote
  24. Essentials of Marketing Research, 5th Edition: William G. Zikmund & Barry J. Babin
  25. The Mind's Machine: Foundations of Brain and Behavior, 3rd Edition: Neil V. Watson & S. Marc Breedlove
  26. Public Relations Cases, 9th Edition: Jerry A. Hendrix & Darrell C. Hayes & Pallavi Damani Kumar
  27. Technical Drawing for Engineering Communication, 7th Edition: David E. Goetsch & Raymond L. Rickman & William S. Chalk
  28. The Legal Writing Handbook: Analysis, Research, and Writing, 7th Edition: Laurel Currie Oates & Anne Enquist & Jeremy Francis
  29. The Essential Counselor: Process, Skills, and Techniques, 3rd Edition: David R. Hutchinson
  30. Examination of Orthopedic & Athletic Injuries, 4th Edition: Chad Starkey & Sara D Brown
  31. Land Development Handbook, 3rd Edition: Dewberry
  32. Adapted Physical Education and Sport, 6th Edition: Joseph Winnick & David L. Porretta
  33. Commentaries and Cases on the Law of Business Organizations, 5th Edition: William T. Allen & Reiner Kraakman
  34. Essentials of Understanding Psychology, 13th Edition: Robert Feldman
  35. The Tracks We Leave: Ethics and Management Dilemmas in Healthcare, 2nd Edition (ACHE Management): Frankie Perry
  36. They Say, I Say: The Moves That Matter in Academic Writing, 3rd Edition: Cathy Birkenstein & Gerald Graff & Tony Craine & Cyndee Maxwell
  37. Counseling Strategies and Interventions, 8th Edition: Sherry Cormier & Harold L. Hackney
  38. Principles of Toxicology: Environmental and Industrial Applications, 3rd Edition: Stephen M. Roberts & Robert C. James & Phillip L. Williams
  39. Electromagnetics, 1st Edition: Branislav M. Notaros
  40. Product Design and Development, 6th Edition: Karl Ulrich & Steven Eppinger
  41. Common Diseases of Companion Animals, 3rd Edition: Alleice Summers
  42. Public Finance, Global Edition, 10th Edition: Ted Gayer & Harvey Rosen
  43. The American Political System, Core 3rd Edition: Ken Kollman
  44. Conflict Narratives in Middle Childhood: The Social, Emotional, and Moral Significance of Story-Sharing, 1st Edition: Marsha D. Walton & Alice J. Davidson
  45. Working With Challenging Parents of Students With Special Needs, 1st Edition: Jean Cheng Gorman
  46. Written and Interpersonal Communication: Methods for Law Enforcement, 5th Edition: Harvey Wallace & Cliff Roberson
  47. The Philosophical Journey: An Interactive Approach, 6th Edition: William Lawhead
  48. Calculus, 3rd Edition: Monty J. Strauss & Gerald L. Bradley & Karl J. Smith
  49. An Introduction to Programming with C++, 8th Edition: Diane Zak
  50. Health Care Information Systems: A Practical Approach for Health Care Management, 4th Edition: Karen A. Wager & Frances W. Lee & John P. Glaser
  51. Cracking the AP Calculus AB Exam 2020, Premium Edition: The Princeton Review
  52. Practical Research Methods for Nonprofit and Public Administrators, 1st Edition: Elizabeth O'Sullivan
  53. Choices in Relationships: An Introduction to Marriage and the Family, 10th Edition: David Knox & Caroline Schacht
  54. Accounting Fundamentals for Health Care Management, 3rd Edition: Steven A. Finkler & David M. Ward & Thad Calabrese
  55. Leadership in a Diverse and Multicultural Environment: Developing Awareness, Knowledge, and Skills, 1st Edition: Dr. Mary L. Connerley & Paul B. Pedersen
  56. Making Sustainability Work, 2nd Edition: Marc J. Epstein & Adriana Rejc Buhovac
  57. Fundamental Accounting Principles, 24th Edition: John J Wild & Ken W. Shaw
  58. Operations Management in Healthcare: Strategy and Practice, 1st Edition: Corinne M. Karuppan & Michael R. Waldrum & Nancy E. Dunlap
  59. Pioneers of Psychology, 5th Edition: Raymond E. Fancher & Alexandra Rutherford
  60. Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 5th Edition: Cecil B. Bozarth & Robert B. Handfield
  61. Guide to Presentations, 4th Edition: Lynn Russell & Mary Munter
  62. Clean Code: A Handbook of Agile Software Craftsmanship, 1st Edition: Robert C. Martin
  63. Perspectives on International Relations: Power, Institutions, and Ideas, 5th Edition: Henry R. Nau
  64. Marketing, 7th Edition: Dhruv Grewal & Michael Levy
  65. Foundations: An Introduction to the Profession of Physical Therapy, 1st Edition: Stephen J. Carp
  66. Employment Discrimination: Procedure, Principles, and Practice, 2nd Edition: Joseph A. Seiner
  67. Saunders Comprehensive Veterinary Dictionary, 4th Edition: Virginia P. Studdert & Clive C. Gay & Douglas C. Blood
  68. International Organizations: Politics, Law, Practice, 3rd Edition: Ian Hurd
  69. The Making of a Teenage Service Class: Poverty and Mobility in an American City, 1st Edition: Ranita Ray
  70. International Marketing, 16th Edition: Philip Cateora
  71. Health Education: Creating Strategies for School & Community Health, 4th Edition: Glen G. Gilbert & Robin G. Sawyer & Elisa Beth McNeill
  72. Entrepreneurial Marketing: Sustaining Growth in All Organisations, 2nd Edition: Ian Chaston
  73. Operations Research: An Introduction, Global Edition, 10th Edition: Taha
  74. Principles of Toxicology: Environmental and Industrial Applications, 3rd Edition: Stephen M. Roberts & Robert C. James & Phillip L. Williams
  75. Fundamentals of Human Resource Management, 4th Edition: Gary Dessler
  76. BPMN Method and Style, Second Edition, with BPMN Implementer's Guide: Bruce Silver
  77. Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing: From Suffering to Hope, 1st Edition: Mertie L. Potter & Mary D. Moller
  78. Gardner's Art through the Ages:The Western Perspective, Volume I, 15th Edition: Fred S. Kleiner
  79. Sales Management: Analysis and Decision Making, 9th Edition: Thomas N. Ingram & Raymond W. LaForge & Ramon A. Avila
  80. Principles of Biomedical Instrumentation, 1st Edition: Andrew G. Webb
  81. Nursing Interventions & Clinical Skills, 7th Edition: Anne Griffin Perry & Patricia A. Potter & Wendy Ostendorf
  82. Law, Business and Society, 12th Edition: Tony McAdams
  83. America: A Narrative History (Vol. One-Volume), 11th Edition: David E. Shi
  84. Chirelstein's Concepts and Case Analysis in the Law of Contracts, 7th Edition: Marvin Chirelstein
  85. Worksite Health Promotion, 3rd Edition: David H. Chenoweth
  86. The New Harbrace Guide: Genres for Composing, 3rd Edition: Cheryl Glenn
  87. Effective Writing: A Handbook for Accountants, 11th Edition: Claire B. May & Gordon S. May
  88. Modeling and Analysis of Dynamic Systems, 3rd Edition: Close Newell
  89. Nutrition Through the Life Cycle, 6th Edition: Judith E. Brown
  90. Media & Culture: An Introduction to Mass Communication, 12th Edition: Richard Campbell & Christopher Martin & Bettina Fabos
  91. Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 11th Edition: William L. Heward & Sheila R. Alber-Morgan & Moira Konrad
  92. American Public Opinion: Its Origins, Content, and Impact, 10th Edition: Robert S. Erikson & Kent L. Tedin
  93. Politics in America: 2018 Elections and Updates Edition, 11th Edition: Thomas R. Dye & Ronald K. Gaddie
  94. Thinking Critically About Ethical Issues, 9th Edition: Vincent Ryan Ruggiero
  95. Criminal Justice in Action, 10th Edition: Larry K. Gaines & Roger LeRoy Miller
  96. Crucial Conversations Tools for Talking When Stakes Are High, 2nd Edition: Kerry Patterson & Joseph Grenny & Ron McMillan & Al Switzler
  97. Labor Relations: Development, Structure, Process, 12th Edition: John A. Fossum
  98. Communication Law: Practical Applications in the Digital Age, 2nd Edition: Dom Caristi & William R Davie
  99. Wardlaw's Contemporary Nutrition: A Functional Approach, 5th Edition: Gordon Wardlaw
  100. Social Work Research Skills Workbook: A Step-by-Step Guide to Conducting Agency-Based Research, 1st Edition: Jacqueline Corcoran & Mary Secret
  101. Principles of Comparative Politics, 3rd Edition: William Roberts Clark & Matt Golder & Sona N. Golder
  102. Cambridge IELTS 7 Student's Book with Answers: Examination Papers from University of Cambridge ESOL Examinations: Cambridge ESOL
  103. Fixed Effects Regression Models (Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences), 1st Edition: Paul D. Allison
  104. Trigonometry, 10th Edition: Ron Larson
  105. Occupational Health and Safety for the 21st Century, 1st Edition: Robert H. Friis
  106. Practicing Harm Reduction Psychotherapy: An Alternative Approach to Addictions, 2nd Edition: Patt Denning & Jeannie Little
  107. Statistics for the Social Sciences, 3rd Edition: R. Mark Sirkin
  108. Financial Markets and Institutions, 10th Edition: Jeff Madura
  109. Graphic Design History, 2nd Edition: Johanna Drucker & Emily McVarish
  110. Human Resource Management, 12th edition: Robert Konopaske & John Ivancevich
  111. Business Law: Text and Cases, 14th Edition: Kenneth W. Clarkson & Roger LeRoy Miller & Frank B. Cross
  112. Study Guide for Understanding Pathophysiology, 6th Edition: Sue E. Huether & Kathryn L. McCance
  113. Plain English for Lawyers, 6th Edition: Richard C. Wydick & Amy E. Sloan
  114. Product Design and Development, 7th Edition: Karl Ulrich
  115. The Life Span: Human Development for Helping Professionals, 4th Edition: Patricia C. Broderick & Pamela Blewitt
  116. Public Service Values, 1st Edition: Richard C. Box
  117. Economics, 2nd Edition: Dean Karlan
  118. Abnormal Psychology, 5th Canadian Edition: Gerald C. Davison & Kirk R. Blankstein & Gordon L. Flett & John M. Neale
  119. The American Political System: Core Third Edition, 2018 Election Update Edition: Ken Kollman
  120. Understanding Normal and Clinical Nutrition, 11th Edition: Sharon Rady Rolfes & Kathryn Pinna & Eleanor Noss Whitney
  121. Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy: A Case Approach, 4th Edition: Nancy L. Murdock
  122. The Candidate: What It Takes to Win - and Hold - the White House, 1st Edition: Samuel L. Popkin
  123. Financial Statement Analysis and Valuation, 5th Edition: Zhang & Easton & McAnally & Sommers
  124. Interaction Design: Beyond Human-Computer Interaction, 1st Edition: Jenny Preece & Yvonne Rogers & Helen Sharp
  125. High-Reliability Healthcare: Improving Patient Safety and Outcomes with Six Sigma, 2nd Edition: Robert Barry
  126. Elementary Information Security, 2nd Edition: Richard E. Smith
  127. Understanding Food: Principles and Preparation, 4th Edition: Amy Brown
  128. In Small Things Forgotten: An Archaeology of Early American Life, Revised, Expanded, Subsequent Edition: James Deetz
  129. What Is This Thing Called Science?, 4th Edition: Alan F. Chalmers
  130. Business and Professional Communication: Plans, Processes, and Performance, 6th Edition: James R. DiSanza & Nancy J. Legge
  131. Java Concepts: Late Objects, 3rd Edition: Cay S. Horstmann
  132. Health & Wellness, 13th Edition: Gordon Edlin & Eric Golanty
  133. Everything's An Argument with Readings, 8th Edition: Andrea A. Lunsford & John J. Ruszkiewicz & Keith Walters
  134. Basics of the U.S. Health Care System, 3rd Edition: Nancy J. Niles
  135. Western Civilization: Volume B: 1300-1815, 10th Edition: Jackson J. Spielvogel
  136. Becoming a Master Manager: A Competing Values Approach, 6th Edition: Robert E. Quinn & David Bright & Sue R. Faerman & Michael P. Thompson
  137. McGraw-Hill's Taxation of Individuals, 2020 Edition, 11th Edition: Brian Spilker
  138. Campbell Biology in Focus, 3rd Edition: Lisa A. Urry & Michael L. Cain & Steven A. Wasserman & Peter V. Minorsky & Rebecca Orr
  139. Computer Security: Principles and Practice, Global Edition, 4th Edition: William Stallings & Lawrie Brown
  140. Lifespan Development: Lives in Context, 2nd Edition: Tara L. Kuther
  141. Drugs, Society, and Human Behavior, 17th Edition: Carl L Hart & Charles J. Ksir
  142. Enforcing Ethics: A Scenario-Based Workbook for Police & Corrections Recruits and Officers, 4th Edition: Debbie J. Goodman
  143. Mechanisms and Machines: Kinematics, Dynamics, and Synthesis, 1st Edition: Michael M. Stanisic
  144. Essentials of Biological Anthropology, 4th Edition: Clark Spencer Larsen
  145. Rhetorical Theory: An Introduction, 2nd Edition: Timothy Borchers & Heather Hundley
  146. International Law, 8th Edition: Malcolm N. Shaw
  147. The Communication Age: Connecting and Engaging, 2nd Edition: Autumn Edwards & Chad C. Edwards & Shawn T. Wahl & Scott A. Myers
  148. Introduction to Solid Modeling Using SOLIDWORKS 2019, 15th Edition: William E. Howard & Joseph Musto
  149. The Norton Field Guide to Writing, 5th Edition: Richard Bullock & Maureen Daly Goggin & Francine Weinberg
  150. Adobe InDesign CC Classroom in a Book (2018 release), 1st Edition: Kelly Kordes Anton & Tina DeJarld
  151. Principles of Neural Science, 5th Edition: Eric R. Kandel & James H. Schwartz & Thomas M. Jessell
  152. Anatomy & Physiology for Speech, Language, and Hearing, 5th Edition: J. Anthony Seikel & David G. Drumright & Douglas W. King
  153. Biological Science, 7th Edition: Scott Freeman & Kim Quillin & Lizabeth Allison & Michael Black & Greg Podgorski & Emily Taylor & Jeff Carmichael
  154. Critical Thinking: A Students Introduction, 6th Edition: Gregory Bassham & William Irwin & Henry Nardone & James Wallace
  155. Understanding Health Information Systems for the Health Professions: Jean A Balgrosky
  156. Child, Family, School, Community: Socialization and Support, 10th Edition: Roberta M. Berns
  157. ACSM's Introduction to Exercise Science, 2nd Edition: American College of Sports Medicine
  158. From Backpack to Briefcase: Professional Development in Health Care Administration, 1st Edition: Michael R. Meacham
  159. Cornerstones of Financial Accounting, 4th Edition: Jay Rich & Jeff Jones
  160. ADTs, Data Structures, and Problem Solving with C++, 2nd Edition: Larry R. Nyhoff
  161. Essentials of Athletic Injury Management, 10th Edition: William E. Prentice
  162. Transport Phenomena, Revised 2nd Edition: R. Byron Bird & Warren E. Stewart & Edwin N. Lightfoot
  163. Typographic Design: Form and Communication, 7th Edition: Rob Carter & Sandra Maxa & Mark Sanders & Philip B. Meggs & Ben Day
  164. Fundamentals of Corporate Finance, 4th Edition: Robert Parrino & David S. Kidwell & Thomas Bates & Stuart L. Gillan
  165. Physical Examination and Health Assessment, 8th Edition: Carolyn Jarvis
  166. The Art of Strategy: A Game Theorist's Guide to Success in Business and Life: Avinash K. Dixit & Barry J. J. Nalebuff
  167. Financial Accounting: Information for Decisions, 9th Edition: John Wild
  168. Voyages in World History, Volume 1, 3rd Edition: Valerie Hansen & Ken Curtis
  169. Calculus & Its Applications, 14th Edition: Larry J. Goldstein & David Lay & David I. Schneider & Nakhle H. Asmar
  170. Schaum's Outline of Essential Computer Mathematics, 1st Edition: Seymour Lipschutz
  171. Data Structures and Algorithms in Python, 1st Edition: Michael T. Goodrich
  172. Introduction to Public Health, 5th Edition: Mary-Jane Schneider
  173. Auditing: A Risk Based-Approach, 11th Edition: Karla M Johnstone-Zehms & Audrey A. Gramling & Larry E. Rittenberg
  174. The Elements of Social Scientific Thinking, 11th Edition: Todd Donovan & Kenneth R. Hoover
  175. Grammar and Usage, Naturally, 1st Edition: Larry Barkley & Christine Sandoval
  176. Understanding the Political World: A Comparative Introduction to Political Science, 12th Edition: James N. Danziger & Charles Anthony Smith
  177. ECON MICRO (with MindTap, 1 term (6 months) Printed Access Card), 6th Edition: William A. McEachern
  178. Microeconomics and Behaviour, 2nd Edition: Robert Frank & Edward Cartwright
  179. Countries and Concepts: Politics, Geography, Culture, 13th Edition: Michael G. Roskin
  180. Worlds Together, Worlds Apart (Volume 1), 5th Edition: Robert Tignor & Jeremy Adelman & Peter Brown
  181. Therapeutic Modalities: The Art and Science, 2nd Edition: Kenneth L. Knight
  182. Chemistry: An Atoms-Focused Approach, 2nd Edition: Thomas R. Gilbert & Rein V. Kirss & Stacey Lowery Bretz & Natalie Foster
  183. Psychological Assessment and Report Writing, 2nd Edition: Goldfinger Karen & Andrew M. Pomerantz
  184. Management: A Practical Introduction, 9th Edition: Angelo Kinicki & Brian K. Williams
  185. SELL, 6th Edition: Thomas N. Ingram & W. LaForge Raymond
  186. Race in America, 1st Edition: Matthew Desmond & Mustafa Emirbayer
  187. Principles of Physics: A Calculus-Based Text, Hybrid 5th Edition: Raymond A. Serway & John W. Jewett
  188. Understanding Food: Principles and Preparation, 5th Edition: Amy Christine Brown
  189. The Thinking Person's Guide to Climate Change, 2nd Edition: Robert Henson
  190. Curriculum Leadership: Strategies for Development and Implementation, 5th Edition: Allan A. Glatthorn & Floyd A. Boschee & Bruce M. Whitehead & Bonni F. Boschee
  191. Essential Law for Social Work Practice in Canada, 1st Edition: Cheryl Regehr & Karima Kanani
  192. Writing Research Papers: A Complete Guide, 16th Edition: James D. Lester
  193. Maternal Newborn Nursing Care Plans, 3rd Edition: Carol J. Green
  194. A Speaker's Guidebook: Text and Reference, 7th Edition: Dan O'Hair & Rob Stewart & Hannah Rubenstein
  195. The Norton Field Guide to Writing: with Readings and Handbook, 5th Edition: Richard Bullock & Maureen Daly Goggin & Francine Weinberg
  196. The Counseling Skills Practice Manual, 1st Edition: David R. Hutchinson
  197. C++ Without Fear: A Beginner's Guide That Makes You Feel Smart, 3rd Edition: Brian Overland
  198. Macroeconomics, 5th Edition: Paul Krugman & Robin Wells
  199. Marketing, 14th Edition: Roger A. Kerin & Steven W. Hartley
  200. Constitutional Law, 5th Edition: Erwin Chemerinsky
  201. We the People (Essentials Twelfth Edition), 12th Edition: Benjamin Ginsberg & Theodore J. Lowi & Margaret Weir & Caroline J. Tolbert & Andrea L. Campbell
  202. Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, 10th Edition: Chris Le Baudour & J. David Bergeron & Keith Wesley
  203. Cengage Advantage Series: The Enduring Vision: A History of the American People, Volume II, 8th Edition: Paul S. Boyer & Clifford E. Clark
  204. Principles of Web Design: The Web Warrior Series (The Web Technologies Series), 6th Edition: Joel Sklar
  205. Ways of the World with Sources, Combined Volume: A Brief Global History, 4th Edition: Robert W. Strayer & Eric W. Nelson
  206. Soil and Water Chemistry: An Integrative Approach, 2nd Edition: Michael E. Essington
  207. Genetic Analysis: An Integrated Approach, 2nd Edition: Mark F. Sanders & John L. Bowman
  208. America: Religions and Religion, 5th Edition: Catherine L. Albanese
  209. An Introduction to Project Management, Fifth Edition: Kathy Schwalbe
  210. Fitness and Wellness, 13th Edition: Wener W.K. Hoeger & Sharon A. Hoeger & Cherie I Hoeger & Amber L. Fawson
  211. Research Methods: A Process of Inquiry, 8th Edition: Anthony M. Graziano & Michael L. Raulin
  212. Intermediate Accounting, 10th Edition: David Spiceland
  213. Air Transportation: A Management Perspective, 8th Edition: John Wensveen
  214. Criminological Theory: Context and Consequences, 7th Edition: J. Robert Lilly & Francis T. Cullen & Richard A. Ball
  215. McKnight's Physical Geography: A Landscape Appreciation, 11th Edition: Darrel Hess & Dennis G. Tasa
  216. Empowerment Series: Understanding Human Behavior and the Social Environment, 11th Edition: Charles Zastrow & Karen K. Kirst-Ashman & Sarah L. Hessenauer
  217. Exploring Medical Language, 10th Edition: Myrna LaFleur Brooks & Danielle LaFleur Brooks
  218. Substance Abuse Counseling: Theory and Practice, 5th Edition: Patricia Stevens & Robert L. Smith
  219. Biology, 4th Edition: Robert Brooker & Eric Widmaier & Linda Graham & Peter Stiling
  220. Computer Networks and Internets, 6th Edition: Douglas E. Comer
  221. MIS, 9th Edition: Hossein Bidgoli
  222. The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness, 1st Edition: Michelle Alexander
  223. Purchasing and Supply Chain Management, 6th Edition: Robert M. Monczka & Robert B. Handfield & Larry C. Giunipero & James L. Patterson
  224. Negotiation: Readings, Exercises, and Cases, 7th Edition: Roy Lewicki
  225. Introduction to Global Business: Understanding the International Environment & Global Business Functions, 2nd Edition: Julian Gaspar & James Kolari & Richard Hise & Leonard Bierman & L. Murphy Smith
  226. Black Letter Outline on Criminal Law, 3rd Edition: Joshua Dressler
  227. Pathology for the Health Professions, 5th Edition: Ivan Damjanov
  228. The Challenge of Democracy: American Government in Global Politics, 14th Edition: Kenneth Janda & Jeffrey M. Berry & Jerry Goldman & Deborah Deborah & Paul Manna
  229. Principles of Human Physiology, 6th Edition: Cindy L. Stanfield
  230. Astronomy Today, 8th Edition: Eric Chaisson & Steve McMillan
  231. The Norton Introduction to Literature, Shorter Thirteenth Edition: Kelly J. Mays
  232. Introductory Statistics: Exploring the World Through Data, 3rd Edition: Robert Gould & Rebecca Wong & Colleen N. Ryan
  233. Using Multivariate Statistics, 7th Edition: Barbara Tabachnick & Linda Fidell
  234. The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 6th Edition: Margo A. Mastropieri & Thomas E. Scruggs
  235. Voice & Vision: A Creative Approach to Narrative Filmmaking, 3rd Edition: Mick Hurbis-Cherrier
  236. Civil Procedure, 10th Edition: Stephen C. Yeazell & Joanna C. Schwartz
  237. Mechanics of Fluids, 5th Edition: Merle C. Potter & David C. Wiggert & Bassem H. Ramadan
  238. Database Systems: The Complete Book, 2nd Edition: Hector Garcia-Molina & Jeffrey D. Ullman & Jennifer Widom
  239. Conflict and Communication, 1st Edition: Fred E. Jandt
  240. Applying Nursing Process: The Foundation for Clinical Reasoning, 8th Edition: Rosalinda Alfaro-LeFevre
  241. Microbiology: An Introduction, 12th Edition: Gerard J. Tortora & Berdell R. Funke & Christine L. Case
  242. Epidemiology: Concepts and Methods, 1st Edition: William A. Oleckno
  243. Selling: Building Partnerships, 10th Edition: Stephen B Castleberry & John F Tanner
  244. Entrepreneurship, 10th Edition: Robert Hisrich
  245. Structural Analysis, 5th Edition: Russell C. Hibbeler
  246. Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology, 11th Edition: Judi Nath & Edwin Bartholomew & Frederic Martini
  247. Financial Accounting, 5th Edition: David Spiceland & Wayne M Thomas & Don Herrmann
  248. Introduction to Management Accounting, 16th Edition: Charles T. Horngren & Gary L. Sundem & Jeff O. Schatzberg & Dave Burgstahler
  249. Estimating With Microsoft Excel, 3rd Edition: Jay P. Christofferson
  250. The Health Care Handbook: A Clear & Concise Guide to the United States Health Care System, 2nd Edition: Elisabeth Askin & Nathan Moore & Vikram Shankar
  251. The Unfinished Nation: A Concise History of the American People, 8th Edition: Alan Brinkley & Andrew Huebner & John Giggie
  252. Human Anatomy & Physiology Laboratory Manual, Cat Version, 13th Edition: Elaine N. Marieb & Lori A. Smith
  253. Contemporary Intellectual Assessment: Theories, Tests, and Issues, 4th Edition: Dawn P. Flanagan & Erin M. McDonough & Alan S. Kaufman
  254. Counseling Strategies and Interventions for Professional Helpers, 9th Edition: Sherry Cormier
  255. Discover Sociology, 4th Edition: William J. Chambliss & Daina S. Eglitis
  256. Principles of Tissue Engineering, 4th Edition: Robert Lanza & Robert Langer & Joseph P. Vacanti
  257. Semiconductor Device Fundamentals, 2nd Edition: Robert F. Pierret
  258. Group Counseling: Strategies and Skills, 8th Edition: Ed E. Jacobs & Christine J. Schimmel & Robert L. L. Masson & Riley L. Harvill
  259. Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 12th Edition: Carlos Coronel & Steven Morris
  260. Aeschylus II: The Oresteia, 3rd Edition: Aeschylus & David Grene & Richmond Lattimore & Mark Griffith & Glenn W. Most
  261. Moore's Essential Clinical Anatomy, 6th Edition: Anne M. R. Agur & Arthur F. Dalley
  262. Introductory Financial Accounting for Business, 1st Edition: Thomas Edmonds
  263. The Concise Book of Muscles, 4th Edition: Chris Jarmey
  264. The Art Of Public Speaking, 13th Edition: Stephen Lucas
  265. Strategic Interventions for People in Crisis, Trauma, and Disaster, 2nd Edition: Diana Sullivan Everstine
  266. Java For Everyone: Late Objects, 2nd Edition: Cay S. Horstmann
  267. Herpetology: An Introductory Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles, 4th Edition: Laurie J. Vitt & Janalee P. Caldwell
  268. Employment Law: Cases and Materials, 6th Edition: Steven Willborn & Stewart Schwab & John Burton & Gillian Lester
  269. A Concise Introduction to Logic, 11th Edition: Patrick J. Hurley
  270. Maternal and Newborn Success: A Q&A Review Applying Critical Thinking to Test Taking, 3rd Edition: Margot De Sevo
  271. Finance: Applications and Theory, 4th Edition: Marcia Cornett
  272. Contemporary Strategy Analysis Text Only, 8th Edition: Robert M. Grant
  273. Corporate Financial Accounting, 14th Edition: Carl Warren & James M. Reeve & Jonathan Duchac
  274. Construction Management, 5th Edition: Daniel W. Halpin & Bolivar A. Senior & Gunnar Lucko
  275. Security Analysis: Foreword by Warren Buffett, 6th Edition: Benjamin Graham & David Dodd & Warren Buffett
  276. Community Health Nursing: Caring for the Public's Health, 3rd Edition: Karen Saucier Lundy & Sharyn Janes
  277. Information Economics, 1st Edition: Urs Birchler & Monika Bütler
  278. Essentials of Oceanography, 13th Edition: Alan P. Trujillo & Harold V. Thurman
  279. Time Maps: Collective Memory and the Social Shape of the Past: Eviatar Zerubavel
  280. Coding Theory and Cryptography: The Essentials, 2nd Edition: D.C. Hankerson & Gary Hoffman & D.A. Leonard & Charles C. Lindner
  281. Health: The Basics, 13th Edition: Rebecca J. Donatelle
  282. International Relations, 11th Edition: Jon C. W. Pevehouse & Joshua S. Goldstein
  283. Abnormal Psychology: Clinical Perspectives on Psychological Disorders, 8th Edition: Susan Krauss Whitbourne
  284. The Norton Field Guide to Writing: with Handbook, 5th Edition: Richard Bullock & Maureen Daly Goggin & Francine Weinberg
  285. Mosby's Pocket Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing & Health Professions, 8th Edition: Mosby
  286. Managerial Accounting for Managers, 5th Edition: Eric Noreen & Peter Brewer & Ray Garrison
  287. Canadian Business and Society : Ethics, Responsibility and Sustainability, 4th Canadian Edition: Robert W. Sexty
  288. The Past in Perspective: An Introduction to Human Prehistory, 7th Edition: Kenneth L. Feder
  289. The Sociology Project 2.5: Introducing the Sociological Imagination, 2nd Edition: Jeff Manza & Richard Arum & Lynne Haney
  290. Ebersole and Hess' Gerontological Nursing & Healthy Aging, 5th Edition: Theris A. Touhy & Kathleen F Jett
  291. Public Finance, 10th Edition: Harvey S Rosen & Ted Gayer
  292. AP Calculus AB & BC Prep Plus 2019-2020: 6 Practice Tests + Study Plans + Targeted Review & Practice + Online: Kaplan Test Prep
  293. Profit Without Honor: White Collar Crime and the Looting of America, 6th Edition: Stephen M. Rosoff & Henry N. Pontell & Robert Tillman
  294. Innovation and Its Enemies: Why People Resist New Technologies, 1st Edition: Calestous Juma
  295. Research Methods for Business: A Skill-Building Approach, 6th Edition: Uma Sekaran & Roger Bougie
  296. The Elusive Eden: A New History of California, 4th Edition: Richard Rice & William Bullough & Richard Orsi & Mary Ann Irwin
  297. Applied Statistics in Business and Economics, 6th Edition: David Doane
  298. Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Alternate Edition, 13th Edition: Thomas D. Fahey & Paul M. Insel & Walton T. Roth
  299. Empowerment Series: Social Work with Groups: Comprehensive Practice and Self-Care, 10th Edition: Charles Zastrow & Sarah L. Hessenauer
  300. Fraud and Fraud Detection: A Data Analytics Approach, 1st Edition: Sunder Gee
  301. A Comprehensive Guide to Project Management Schedule and Cost Control: Methods and Models for Managing the Project Lifecycle, 1st Edition: Randal Wilson
  302. Theory and Practice of Family Therapy and Counseling, 2nd Edition: James Robert Bitter
  303. Aging Matters: An Introduction to Social Gerontology, 1st Edition: Nancy Hooyman & Kevin S. Kawamoto & H. Asuman S. Kiyak
  304. Decision by Objectives, 1st Edition: Ernest Forman & Mary Ann Selly
  305. Assessment: In Special and Inclusive Education, 12th Edition: John Salvia & James Ysseldyke & Sara Witmer
  306. Supervision in the Hospitality Industry, 8th Edition: John R. Walker & Jack E. Miller
  307. Soils and Foundations, 8th Edition: Cheng Liu & Jack Evett
  308. China’s Political System: Modernization and Tradition, 10th Edition: June Teufel Dreyer
  309. Principles of Trauma Therapy: A Guide to Symptoms, Evaluation, and Treatment ( DSM-5 Update), 2nd Edition: Dr. John N. Briere & Catherine Scott
  310. Essentials of Investments, 11th Edition: Zvi Bodie & Alex Kane & Alan J. Marcus
  311. Chemistry, 7th Edition: Steve Zumdahl
  312. Multicultural Health, 2nd Edition: Lois A. Ritter & Donald H. Graham
  313. The Development of Children, 8th Edition: Cynthia Lightfoot & Michael Cole & Sheila Cole
  314. Criminal Law and its Processes: Cases and Materials, 10th Edition: Sanford H. Kadish & Stephen J. Schulhofer & Rachel E. Barkow
  315. Operations Management: Sustainability and Supply Chain Management, 12th Edition: Jay Heizer & Barry Render & Chuck Munson
  316. Nutrition, 6th Edition: Paul Insel & Don Ross & Kimberley McMahon & Melissa Bernstein
  317. A History of Modern Europe: From the Renaissance to the Present, 3rd Edition: John Merriman
  318. Federal Rules of Civil Procedure: With Selected Statutes and Other Materials, 2019 Supplement Edition: Stephen C. Yeazell & Joanna C. Schwartz
  319. Essentials of the U.S. Health Care System, 5th Edition: Leiyu Shi & Douglas A. Singh
  320. Head First JavaScript Programming: A Brain-Friendly Guide, 1st Edition: Eric Freeman & Elisabeth Robson
  321. Disasters by Design: A Reassessment of Natural Hazards in the United States: Dennis Mileti
  322. Principles of Corporate Finance, 13th Edition: Richard A Brealey & Stewart C Myers & Franklin Allen
  323. Nursing Care Plans: Transitional Patient & Family Centered Care, 7th Edition: Lynda J Carpenito
  324. Electrocardiography for Healthcare Professionals, 5th Edition: Kathryn Booth
  325. Invitation to the Life Span, 4th Edition: Kathleen Stassen Berger
  326. Human Resource Management: Essential Perspectives, 7th Edition: Robert L. Mathis & John H. Jackson & Sean R. Valentine
  327. Discipline Without Stress Punishments or Rewards : How Teachers and Parents Promote Responsibility & Learning, 2nd Edition Revised: Marvin Marshall
  328. Project Management: Achieving Competitive Advantage, 5th Edition: Jeffrey K. Pinto
  329. Microeconomics (Pearson Series in Economics), 2nd Edition: Daron Acemoglu & David Laibson & John List
  330. Essentials of Management and Leadership in Public Health, 1st Edition: Robert E Burke & Leonard H. Friedman
  331. The Earth and Its Peoples: A Global History, Volume II: Since 1500, 6th Edition: Richard Bulliet & Pamela Crossley & Daniel Headrick & Steven Hirsch & Lyman Johnson
  332. Fundamentals of Financial Management, Concise Edition, 10th Edition: Eugene F. Brigham & Joel F. Houston
  333. Introduction to Engineering Analysis, 4th Edition: Kirk D. Hagen
  334. Sparks & Taylor's Nursing Diagnosis Reference Manual, 10th Edition: Linda Phelps
  335. American Government: Stories of a Nation, 2nd Edition: Scott F. Abernathy
  336. Abnormal Psychology, Global Edition, 17th Edition: James N. Butcher
  337. The Unfinished Nation: A Concise History of the American People, 9th Edition: Alan Brinkley & Andrew Huebner & John Giggie
  338. Precalculus, 11th Edition: Michael Sullivan
  339. Adolescence, 17th Edition: John W Santrock
  340. The Norton Field Guide to Writing, 5th Edition: Richard Bullock & Maureen Daly Goggin & Francine Weinberg
  341. Law & Ethics for Health Professions, 7th Edition: Karen Judson
  342. Introduction to Linear Algebra, 5th Edition: Gilbert Strang
  343. Physical Chemistry for the Life Sciences, 2nd Edition: Peter Atkins & Julio De Paula
  344. How to Think About Weird Things: Critical Thinking for a New Age, 7th Edition: Theodore Schick
  345. Experience Music, 4th Edition: Katherine Charlton
  346. Western Civilization: A Brief History, Volume I: To 1715, 9th Edition: Jackson J. Spielvogel
  347. Psychology, 12th Edition: David Myers & C. Nathan DeWall
  348. Nuestro idioma, nuestra herencia, 1st Edition: Heidi Ann García & Carmen Carney & Trino Sandoval
  349. Psychology Applied to Modern Life: Adjustment in the 21st Century, 12th Edition: Wayne Weiten & Dana S. Dunn & Elizabeth Yost Hammer
  350. Professional Ethics in Criminal Justice: Being Ethical When No One is Looking, 4th Edition: Jay S. Albanese
submitted by TailExpert to CollegeTextbook [link] [comments]

[Part - 33] Large college ebooks/eTextbooks thread for cheap rates [$4 to $25]

  1. Experiencing MIS, 8th Edition: David M. Kroenke & Randall J. Boyle
  2. Mosby's Canadian Manual of Diagnostic and Laboratory Tests, 2nd Edition: Sandra A. Pike-MacDonald & Kathleen Deska Pagana & Timothy J. Pagana
  3. The Developing Child, 13th Edition: Helen Bee & Denise Boyd
  4. The Law of Health Care Finance and Regulation (Aspen Select), 4th Edition: Mark A. Hall & Nicholas Bagley & David Orentlicher
  5. The New Rules of Marketing and PR, 6th Edition: David Meerman Scott
  6. A Project Manager's Book of Tools and Techniques, 1st Edition: Cynthia Snyder Dionisio
  7. The Oxford Handbook of Eating Disorders, 2nd Edition: W. Stewart Agras & Athena Robinson
  8. Elementary Linear Algebra: Applications Version, 12th Australia and New Zealand Edition: Howard Anton & Chris Rorres & Anton Kaul
  9. The Mindful Nurse: Using the Power of Mindfulness and Compassion to Help You Thrive in Your Work: Carmel Sheridan
  10. High-Acuity Nursing, 7th Edition: Kathleen Wagner & Melanie Hardin-Pierce & Darlene Welsh
  11. Architectural Drafting and Design, 7th Edition: Alan Jefferis & David A. Madsen & David P. Madsen
  12. Social Psychology: The Science of Everyday Life, 2nd Edition: Jeff Greenberg & Toni Schmader & Jamie Arndt & Mark Landau
  13. A Project Manager's Book of Forms: A Companion to the PMBOK Guide, 3rd Edition: Cynthia Snyder Dionisio
  14. Race and Human Diversity: A Biocultural Approach, 2nd Edition: Robert L. Anemone
  15. Advocacy: Championing Ideas and Influencing Others, 1st Edition: John A. Daly
  16. Essential Genetics and Genomics, 7th Edition: Daniel L. Hartl
  17. Strategies for Teaching Students with Learning and Behavior Problems, 9th Edition: Sharon R. Vaughn & Candace S. Bos
  18. Zero Bone Loss Concepts, 1st Edition: Tomas Linkevicius
  19. Understanding Our Universe, 3rd Edition: Stacy Palen & Laura Kay & George Blumenthal
  20. Materials for Civil and Construction Engineers, 4th Edition: Michael S. Mamlouk & John P. Zaniewski
  21. The Oxford Handbook of Reproductive Ethics, 1st Edition: Leslie Francis
  22. Worldwide Destinations: The geography of travel and tourism, 7th Edition: Brian Boniface & Robyn Cooper & Chris Cooper
  23. Experiencing the Lifespan, 5th Edition: Janet Belsky
  24. Fast Facts for the Student Nurse: Nursing Student Success in a Nutshell, 1st Edition: Susan Stabler-Haas
  25. Multivariable Calculus, 8th Edition: James Stewart
  26. Sex and Gender: An Introduction, 6th Edition: Hilary M. Lips
  27. A Stata® Companion to Political Analysis, 4th Edition: Philip H. Pollock & Barry C. Edwards
  28. Marketing: The Core, 8th Edition: Roger Kerin & Steven Hartley
  29. Sports Marketing, 2nd Edition: Michael J. Fetchko & Donald P. Roy & Kenneth E. Clow
  30. An Introduction to Family Social Work, 4th Edition: Donald Collins & Catheleen Jordan & Heather Coleman
  31. Elementary Statistics, 3rd Edition: William Navidi & Barry Monk
  32. Clinical Calculations: With Applications to General and Specialty Areas, 8th Edition: Joyce LeFever Kee & Sally M. Marshall
  33. Animal Physiology, 4th Edition: Richard W. Hill & Gordon A. Wyse & Margaret Anderson
  34. Essentials of Rehabilitation Research: A Statistical Guide to Clinical Practice, 1st Edition: Richard P Di Fabio
  35. Religious Nationalism: A Reference Handbook: Atalia Omer & Jason Springs
  36. Defensive Security Handbook: Best Practices for Securing Infrastructure, 1st Edition: Lee Brotherston & Amanda Berlin
  37. Clinical Case Formulations, 2nd Edition: Barbara Lichner Ingram
  38. Urban Tantra: Sacred Sex for the Twenty-First Century, 2nd Edition: Barbara Carrellas & Annie Sprinkle
  39. Government and Not-for-Profit Accounting: Concepts and Practices, 8th Edition: Michael H. Granof & Saleha B. Khumawala & Thad D. Calabrese & Daniel L. Smith
  40. How to Do Systems Analysis: Primer and Casebook, 1st Edition: John E. Gibson & William T. Scherer & William F. Gibson
  41. U.S. Central Americans: Reconstructing Memories, Struggles, and Communities of Resistance, 1st Edition: Karina Oliva Alvarado & Alicia Ivonne Estrada & Ester E. Hernández
  42. Principles of Electronic Materials and Devices, 4th Edition: Safa Kasap
  43. LogixPro PLC Lab Manual w/ CD-ROM, 4th Edition: Frank Petruzella
  44. South-Western Federal Taxation 2020: Corporations, Partnerships, Estates and Trusts, 43rd Edition: William A. Raabe & James C. Young & William H. Hoffman
  45. Social Psychology: Goals in Interaction, 7th Edition: Douglas Kenrick & Steven L. Neuberg & Robert B. Cialdini
  46. Fundamentals of Corporate Finance, 10th Edition: Richard Brealey & Stewart Myers & Alan Marcus
  47. Molecular Biology, 3rd Edition: David P. Clark & Nanette J. Pazdernik & Michelle R. McGehee
  48. The Rorschach: Basic Foundations and Principles of Interpretation, Volume 1, 4th Edition: John E. Exner
  49. Docker in Action, 2nd Edition: Jeff Nickoloff & Stephen Kuenzli
  50. Evolution: Making Sense of Life, 3rd Edition: Douglas J. Emlen & Carl Zimmer
  51. Herpetology, 4th Edition: F. Harvey Pough & Robin M. Andrews & Martha L. Crump
  52. Research Methods in Criminal Justice and Criminology, 1st Edition: Callie Marie Rennison & Timothy Christopher Hart
  53. The Meaning of Difference: American Constructions of Race, Sex and Gender, Social Class, Sexual Orientation, and Disability, 7th Edition: Karen Rosenblum
  54. Research Methods in Health Promotion, 2nd Edition: Laura F. Salazar & Richard A. Crosby & Ralph J. DiClemente
  55. The Psychology of Thinking: Reasoning, Decision-Making and Problem-Solving, 1st Edition: John P. Minda
  56. Nutrition Essentials: A Personal Approach, 2nd Edition: Wendy J Schiff
  57. Chemical, Biochemical, and Engineering Thermodynamics, 5th Edition: Stanley I. Sandler
  58. Parenting: A Dynamic Perspective, 2nd Edition: George W. Holden
  59. Managerial Accounting, 4th Edition: Karen W. Braun & Wendy M. Tietz
  60. Basics of Web Design: HTML5 & CSS, 5th Edition: Terry Felke-Morris
  61. The Essentials of Political Analysis, 6th Edition: Philip H. Pollock III & Barry C. Edwards
  62. Leadership and Management for Nurses: Core Competencies for Quality Care, 3rd Edition: Anita Finkelman
  63. Urban Ecology (Ecological Reviews), 1st Edition: Kevin J. Gaston
  64. Nutrition & You, 5th Edition: Joan Salge Blake
  65. Principles of Turbomachinery, 2nd Edition: Seppo A. Korpela
  66. Accounting For Managers: Interpreting Accounting Information for Decision–Making, 4th Edition: Paul M. Collier
  67. Computer Networks, 5th Edition: Andrew S. Tanenbaum & David J. Wetherall
  68. Shigley's Mechanical Engineering Design, 11th Edition: Richard Budynas & Keith Nisbett
  69. Sociology in Action: A Canadian Perspective, 2nd Edition: Diane Symbaluk & Tami Bereska
  70. Operations and Supply Chain Management: The Core, 5th Edition: F. Robert Jacobs & Richard Chase
  71. Essentials of Nursing Law and Ethics, 2nd Edition: Susan J. Westrick
  72. Kirk's Fire Investigation (Brady Fire), 8th Edition: David J. Icove & Gerald A. Haynes
  73. Understanding Operating Systems, 8th Edition: Ann McHoes & Ida M. Flynn
  74. Survey of Accounting, 1st Edition: Paul D. Kimmel & Jerry J. Weygandt
  75. Biological Anthropology: The Natural History of Humankind, 4th Edition: Craig Stanford & John S. Allen & Susan C. Antón
  76. DK Guide to Public Speaking, 3rd Edition: Lisa A. Ford-Brown & DK Dorling Kindersley
  77. Calculus: Early Transcendental Functions, 7th Edition: Ron Larson & Bruce H. Edwards
  78. Canadian Business and the Law, 7th Edition: Dorothy Duplessis & Shannon O'Byrne & Philip King & Lorrie Adams & Steve Enman
  79. An Introduction to Judaism, 2nd Edition: Nicholas De Lange
  80. A History of the Muslim World to 1750: The Making of a Civilization, 2nd Edition: Vernon O. Egger
  81. Bioprocess Engineering: Basic Concepts, 3rd Edition: Michael L. Shuler & Fikret Kargi & Matthew DeLisa
  82. Data Mining for Business Analytics: Concepts, Techniques, and Applications with JMP Pro, 1st Edition: Galit Shmueli & Peter C. Bruce & Mia L. Stephens & Nitin R. Patel
  83. Storied Health and Illness: Communicating Personal, Cultural, and Political Complexities, 1st Edition: Jill Yamasaki & Patricia Geist-Martin & Barbara F. Sharf
  84. Healthcare Strategic Planning, 4th Edition (ACHE Management): John Harris
  85. Applied Business Ethics: A Skills-Based Approach (South-Western Legal Studies in Business Academic), 1st Edition: Dean Bredeson
  86. Principles of Electric Circuits: Conventional Current Version, 10th Edition: Thomas L. Floyd & David M. Buchla
  87. Educational Psychology: Applications in Canadian Classrooms, 2nd Edition: Alan Edmunds & Gail Edmunds
  88. Essential Elements for Effectiveness for Miami Dade College, 7th Edition: Juan R. Abascal & Dominic Brucato & Laurel Brucato & Patricia Stephenson
  89. The Scholar-Practitioner’s Guide to Research Design: Laureate Publishing & Gary J. Burkholder & Kimberley A. Cox & Linda M. Crawford
  90. Good Cities, Better Lives: How Europe Discovered the Lost Art of Urbanism, 1st Edition: Peter Hall
  91. Adult Development and Aging: Biopsychosocial Perspectives, Canadian Edition: Susan Krauss Whitbourne & Stacey B. Whitbourne & Candace Konnert
  92. Organic Chemistry: Mechanistic Patterns: Ghis William Ogilvie & Nathan Ackroyd & Scott Browning
  93. The Environment in Anthropology : A Reader in Ecology, Culture, and Sustainable Living, 2nd Edition: Nora Haenn & Allison Harnish & Richard Wilk
  94. Sources of World Societies, Volume 1, 3rd Edition: Merry E. Wiesner-Hanks & Patricia Buckley Ebrey & Roger B. Beck
  95. Intermediate Algebra, 4th Edition: Michael III Sullivan & Katherine R. Struve
  96. Reference and Information Services: An Introduction, 4th Edition: Kay Ann Cassell & Uma Hiremath
  97. The Neuroscience of Human Relationships: Attachment and the Developing Social Brain, 2nd Edition: Louis Cozolino
  98. Qualitative Diagnosis of Human Movement: Improving Performance in Sport and Exercise, 3rd Edition: Duane V. Knudson
  99. Wireshark 101: Essential Skills for Network Analysis (Wireshark Solutions Series Book 1): Laura Chappell & Gerald Combs
  100. Behavioral Sciences STAT, 2nd Edition: Gary Heiman
  101. Guide to Contract Pricing: Cost and Price Analysis for Contractors, Subcontractors, and Government Agencies, 5th Edition: John E. Murphy
  102. Advanced Financial Accounting, 7th Canadian Edition: Thomas H. Beechy & V. Umashanker Trivedi & Kenneth E. MacAulay
  103. Contemporary Linguistic Analysis: An Introduction, 8th Edition: William O'Grady & John Archibald
  104. The Writer's Harbrace Handbook, 2016 MLA Update, 6th Edition: Cheryl Glenn & Loretta Gray
  105. The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography, 13th Edition: James M. Rubenstein
  106. Python Programming in Context, 3rd Edition: Bradley N. Miller & David L. Ranum & Julie Anderson
  107. Financial Institutions, Instruments and Markets, 9th Edition: Christopher Viney & Peter Phillips
  108. Essential Statistics for Public Managers and Policy Analysts, 4th Edition: Evan M. Berman & XiaoHu Wang
  109. NCLEX-RN Review Guide: Top Ten Questions for Quick Review, 1st Edition: Cynthia Chernecky
  110. Teachers and the Law, 9th Edition: David Schimmel & Leslie R. Stellman & Cynthia K. Conlon & Louis Fischer
  111. Communicating for Results: A Canadian Student's Guide, 4th Edition: Carolyn Meyer
  112. Federal Income Taxation, 5th Edition: Richard Schmalbeck & Lawrence Zelenak & Sarah B Lawsky
  113. Essentials of Cardiopulmonary Physical Therapy, 4th Edition: Ellen Hillegass
  114. Entertainment Law and Business (Aspen Casebook Series): William D. Henslee & Elizabeth Henslee
  115. Your Career: How To Make It Happen, 9th Edition: Lauri Harwood & Lisa M.D. Owens & Crystal Kadakia
  116. Community Disability Services: An Evidence-Based Approach to Practice: Ian Dempsey & Karen Nankervis
  117. Motivational Interviewing, Third Edition: Helping People Change, 3rd Edition: William R. Miller & Stephen Rollnick
  118. Basics of Communication Studies, 2nd Edition: Scott McLean
  119. The Certified Six Sigma Yellow Belt Handbook: Govindarajan Ramu
  120. Fundamentals of General, Organic and Biological Chemistry in SI Units, 8th Edition: John E. McMurry & David S. Ballantine & Carl A. Hoeger & Virginia E. Peterson
  121. Pediatric Psychopharmacology For Primary Care, 1st Edition: Mark A Riddle & Jane Meschan Foy & Rebecca A. Baum
  122. Project Management for Engineering, Business and Technology, 5th Edition: John M. Nicholas & Herman Steyn
  123. Delivering Business Intelligence with Microsoft SQL Server 2016, 4th Edition: Brian Larson
  124. Connecting Care for Patients: Interdisciplinary Care Transitions and Collaboration, 1st Edition: Barbara Katz
  125. The TCP/IP Guide: A Comprehensive, Illustrated Internet Protocols Reference, 1st Edition: Charles M. Kozierok
  126. Frequently Prescribed Medications: Drugs You Need to Know, 3rd Edition: Michael A. Mancano & Jason C. Gallagher
  127. The Handmaid's Tale, 1st Edition: Margaret Atwood
  128. 101 Solutions for School Counselors and Leaders in Challenging Times, 1st Edition: Stuart F. Chen-Hayes & Erin Chase McCarty Mason & Melissa S. Ockerman
  129. Ethics in Accounting: A Decision-Making Approach, 1st Edition: Gordon Klein
  130. Visualizing Human Biology, 5th Edition: Kathleen A. Ireland
  131. The Goldilocks Challenge: Right-Fit Evidence for the Social Sector, 1st Edition: Mary Kay Gugerty & Dean Karlan
  132. Advocacy Practice for Social Justice, 4th Edition: Richard Hoefer
  133. The Politics of Public Budgeting: Getting and Spending, Borrowing and Balancing, 9th Edition: Irene S. Rubin
  134. The Ingredients for Great Teaching, 1st Edition: Pedro De Bruyckere
  135. A Guide to the Human Resource Body of Knowledge, 1st Edition: Sandra M. Reed & Dave Ulrich
  136. Individual and Society: Sociological Social Psychology, 2nd Edition: Lizabeth A. Crawford & Katherine B. Novak
  137. Great Demo!: How To Create And Execute Stunning Software Demonstrations, 2nd Edition: Peter E. Cohan
  138. Healthcare Project Management, 2nd Edition: Kathy Schwalbe & Dan Furlong
  139. Goodheart's Photoguide to Common Pediatric and Adult Skin Disorders, 4th Edition: Herbert Goodheart & Mercedes Gonzalez
  140. Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction, 10th Edition: William D. Callister & David G. Rethwisch
  141. Personality Assessment, 2nd Edition: Robert P. Archer
  142. Philosophy: The Power Of Ideas, 10th Edition: Brooke Noel Moore & Kenneth Bruder
  143. Cognitive Neuroscience: The Biology of the Mind, 5th Edition: Michael Gazzaniga & Richard B. Ivry & George R. Mangun
  144. Deviance, Conformity, and Social Control in Canada, 5th Edition: Tami M. Bereska
  145. Experimental Design: Procedures for the Behavioral Sciences, 4th Edition: Roger E. Kirk
  146. Urban Economics, 9th Edition: Arthur O'Sullivan
  147. HBR Guide to Making Every Meeting Matter: Harvard Business Review
  148. Movie History: A Survey, 2nd Edition: Clara Pafort-Overduin
  149. Marriages and Families: Intimacy, Diversity, and Strengths, 9th Edition: David Olson & John DeFrain & Linda Skogrand
  150. Group Dynamics, 7th Edition: Donelson R. Forsyth
  151. Understanding Canadian Business, 10th Canadian Edition: William G Nickels & James McHugh & Susan McHugh & Rita Cossa & Julie Stevens
  152. Fitzpatrick's Color Atlas and Synopsis of Clinical Dermatology, 8th Edition: Klaus Wolff & Richard C. Johnson & Arturo Saavedra & Ellen K. Roh
  153. General and Oral Pathology for Dental Hygiene Practice, 1st Edition: Sandra Myers & Alice Curran
  154. Practical Apartment Management, 6th Edition: Edward N. Kelley
  155. Business Law in Canada, 12th Canadian Edition: Richard A. Yates & Teresa Bereznicki-Korol & Trevor Clarke & Dean A. Palmer
  156. Adolescence, 12th Edition: Laurence Steinberg
  157. Delivering Health Care in America: A Systems Approach, 7th Edition: Leiyu Shi & Douglas A. Singh
  158. DeathQuest: An Introduction to the Theory and Practice of Capital Punishment in the United States, 5th Edition: Robert M. Bohm
  159. Management, 12th Edition: Richard L. Daft
  160. Invertebrate Medicine, 2nd Edition: Gregory A. Lewbart
  161. Tested Advertising Methods (Prentice Hall Business Classics), 5th Edition: John Caples & Fred E. Hahn
  162. Pearson's Federal Taxation 2020 Corporations, Partnerships, Estates & Trusts, 33rd Edition: Timothy J. Rupert & Kenneth E. Anderson & David S. Hulse
  163. Planetary Sciences, 2nd Edition: Imke de Pater & Jack J. Lissauer
  164. World Class Contracting, 6th Edition: Gregory A. Garrett
  165. Social Determinants of Health: A Comparative Approach, 2nd Edition: Alan Davidson
  166. The Talent Management Handbook, 3rd Edition: Lance A. Berger & Dorothy Berger
  167. Doing Right: A Practical Guide to Ethics for Medical Trainees and Physicians, 4th Edition: Philip C. Hebert & Wayne Rosen
  168. Governing California in the Twenty-First Century, 6th Edition: J. Theodore Anagnoson & Gerald Bonetto & J. Vincent Buck
  169. Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy, 6th Edition: Robert W. Bauman
  170. Essentials of TAT and Other Storytelling Assessments, 2nd Edition: Hedwig Teglasi
  171. Film History: An Introduction, 4th Edition: Kristin Thompson & David Bordwell
  172. Statistics for Business & Economics, 14th Edition: David R. Anderson & Dennis J. Sweeney & Thomas A. Williams
  173. 21st Century Astronomy: The Solar System, 6th Edition: Laura Kay & Stacy Palen & George Blumenthal
  174. Chemical Dependency Counseling: A Practical Guide, 5th Edition: Robert R. Perkinson
  175. Essential Cell Biology, 5th Edition: Bruce Alberts & Karen Hopkin & Alexander D. Johnson
  176. Exploring Geology, 4th Edition: Stephen Reynolds & Julia Johnson & Paul Morin & Chuck Carter
  177. The Price Advantage, 2nd Edition: Walter L. Baker & Michael V. Marn & Craig C. Zawada
  178. Transport Processes at Fluidic Interfaces, 1st Edition: Dieter Bothe & Arnold Reusken
  179. Antitrust Law, Policy, and Procedure: Cases, Materials, Problems, 8th Edition: E. Thomas Sullivan & Herbert Hovenkamp & Howard A. Shelanski & Christopher R. Leslie
  180. 5 Steps to a 5: AP Chinese Language and Culture, 2nd Edition: JianMin Luo
  181. The Practice of Research in Social Work, 4th Edition: Rafael J. Engel & Russell K. Schutt
  182. Sociology: A Global Perspective, 9th Edition: Joan Ferrante
  183. Understanding and Treating Chronic Shame: A Relational/Neurobiological Approach, 1st Edition: Patricia A. DeYoung
  184. Classics of Moral and Political Theory, 5th Edition: Michael L. Morgan
  185. Financial & Managerial Accounting, 15th Edition: Carl Warren & Jefferson P. Jones & William B. Tayler
  186. Experimental Organic Chemistry: A Miniscale and Microscale Approach, 5th Edition: John C. Gilbert & Stephen F. Martin
  187. Vaccine Whistleblower: Exposing Autism Research Fraud at the CDC: 1st Edition: Kevin Barry & Robert F. Kennedy
  188. Wound Management: Principles and Practices, 3rd Edition: Betsy Myers
  189. Business Research Methods, 13th Edition: Pamela Schindler
  190. Goldman-Cecil Medicine, 26th Edition: Lee Goldman & Andrew I. Schafer
  191. Nursing Leadership & Management, 3rd Edition: Patricia Kelly
  192. Health Communication: A Media and Cultural Studies Approach, 2014 Edition: Belinda Lewis
  193. Sport, Violence and Society, 2nd Edition: Kevin Young
  194. Guide to Managerial Communication, 10th Edition: Mary Munter & Lynn Hamilton
  195. Emotion, 1st Edition: Annett Schirmer
  196. Clinical Analytics and Data Management for the DNP, 1st Edition: Martha L. Sylvia
  197. Principles of Corporate Finance, 11th Edition: Richard Brealey
  198. Introduction to Strategic Public Relations: Digital, Global, and Socially Responsible Communication, 1st Edition: Janis Teruggi Page & Lawrence J. Parnell
  199. Alternative Medicine: The Definitive Guide, 2nd Edition: Larry Trivieri & John W. Anderson & Burton Goldberg
  200. How Full Is Your Bucket?, Anniversary Edition: Tom Rath & Donald O. Clifton
  201. MATLAB: A Practical Introduction to Programming and Problem Solving, 5th Edition: Stormy Attaway
  202. Anatomical Landmark Palpation Video and Book, 1st Edition: Paula Maxwell
  203. Common Stocks and Uncommon Profits and Other Writings, 2nd Edition: Philip A. Fisher & Kenneth L. Fisher
  204. Elements of Physical Chemistry, 7th Edition: Peter Atkins & Julio de Paula
  205. Managing and Using Information Systems: A Strategic Approach, 7th Edition: Keri E. Pearlson & Carol S. Saunders & Dennis F. Galletta
  206. Mediation: Empowerment in Conflict Management, 2nd Edition: Kathy Domenici & Stephen W. Littlejohn
  207. Observing and Recording the Behavior of Young Children, 6th Edition: Dorothy H. Cohen & Virginia Stern & Nancy Balaban & Nancy Gropper
  208. Shortell and Kaluzny’s Healthcare Management: Organization Design and Behavior, 7th Edition: Lawton Burns & Elizabeth Bradley & Bryan Weiner
  209. Practical Business Math Procedures, 13th Edition: Jeffrey Slater & Sharon Wittry
  210. Biological Anthropology of the Human Skeleton, 3rd Edition: M. Anne Katzenberg & Anne L. Grauer
  211. Developmental Mathematics: Basic Mathematics and Algebra, 4th Edition: Margaret L. Lial & John Hornsby & Terry McGinnis & Stanley A. Salzman & Diana L. Hestwood
  212. Exercises for the Shoulder to Hand: Release Your Kinetic Chain: Brian James Abelson & Kamali Thara Abelson & Lavanya Balasubramaniyam
  213. Career Theories and Models at Work: Ideas for Practice: Nancy Arthur & Roberta Neault & Mary McMahon
  214. Culture, Health and Illness, (Hodder Arnold Publication), 5th Edition: Cecil G. Helman
  215. Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, 13th Edition: Barbara M. Newman & Philip R. Newman
  216. Cultural Anthropology in a Globalizing World, 4th Edition: Barbara Miller
  217. American Foreign Policy Since World War II, 21st Edition: Steven W. Hook & John W. Spanier
  218. World Politics: Trend and Transformation, 2016 - 2017, 16th Edition: Shannon L. Blanton & Charles W. Kegley
  219. Marketing Metaphoria: What Deep Metaphors Reveal About the Minds of Consumers: Gerald Zaltman & Lindsay H. Zaltman
  220. Building on the Strengths of Students with Special Needs: How to Move Beyond Disability Labels in the Classroom: Toby Karten
  221. American Public Administration: Public Service for the Twenty-First Century, 2nd Edition: Robert A. Cropf & John L. Wagner
  222. THINK Public Relations, 2nd Edition: Dennis L. Wilcox & Glen T. Cameron & Bryan H. Reber & Jae-Hwa Shin
  223. An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, 6th Edition: Bryan Kolb & Ian Q. Whishaw & G. Campbell Teskey
  224. Physiology, 6th Edition: Linda S. Costanzo
  225. Stats: Data and Models, 5th Edition: Richard D. De Veaux & Paul F. Velleman & David E. Bock
  226. Through Women's Eyes: An American History With Documents, 5th Edition: Ellen DuBois & Lynn Dumenil
  227. Intermediate Accounting: Volume 2, 3rd Edition: Kin Lo & George Fisher
  228. Disciplined Entrepreneurship: 24 Steps to a Successful Startup, 1st Edition: Bill Aulet
  229. People of the Earth: An Introduction to World Prehistory, 15th Edition: Brian M. Fagan & Nadia Durrani
  230. The Economics of Health Reconsidered, 4th Edition: Thomas Rice
  231. Psychology, 8th Edition: Saundra Hockenbury & Susan Nolan
  232. Exploring Biological Anthropology: The Essentials, 4th Edition: Craig Stanford & John S. Allen & Susan C. Antón
  233. Using MIS, 11th Edition: David M. Kroenke & Randall J. Boyle
  234. Musculoskeletal Pain: Basic Mechanisms & Implications, 1st Edition: Thomas Graven-Nielsen & Lars Arendt-Nielsen
  235. Classical Mythology in Context, 1st Edition: Lisa Maurizio
  236. The Nature and Properties of Soils, 15th Edition: Ray R. Weil & Nyle C. Brady
  237. Community-Based Corrections, 12th Edition: Leanne Fiftal Alarid
  238. Conflict Management for Managers: Resolving Workplace, Client, and Policy Disputes, 1st Edition: Susan S. Raines
  239. Strategic Compensation: A Human Resource Management Approach, 9th Edition: Joseph J. Martocchio
  240. Introduction to Probability and Statistics, 15th Edition: William Mendenhall & Robert J. Beaver & Barbara M. Beaver
  241. Demonstrating to Win!: The Indispensable Guide for Demonstrating Software: Robert Riefstahl
  242. Essential Organic Chemistry, 3rd Edition: Paula Yurkanis Bruice
  243. The American Promise, Value Edition, Volume 1: To 1877, 8th Edition: James L. Roark & Michael P. Johnson & Francois Furstenberg & Sarah Stage & Sarah E. Igo
  244. Labor Law: Cases, Materials, and Problems, 8th Edition: Michael C. Harper & Samuel Estreicher & Kati Griffith
  245. A Practical Guide to the Thematic Apperception Test: The TAT in Clinical Practice, 1st Edition: Edward Aronow & Kim Altman Weiss & Marvin Reznikoff
  246. Informatics and Nursing, 6th Edition: Jeanne Sewell
  247. Operating System Concepts, 10th Edition: Abraham Silberschatz & Greg Gagne & Peter B. Galvin
  248. The Career Fitness Program: Exercising Your Options, 11th Edition: Diane Sukiennik & Lisa Raufman
  249. Dutton's Orthopaedic: Examination, Evaluation and Intervention, 5th Edition: Mark Dutton
  250. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th Edition: American Psychological Association
  251. Sports Economics, 1st Edition: David Berri
  252. Health and Health Care Delivery in Canada, 2nd Edition: Valerie D. Thompson
  253. The Psychology Major's Handbook, 5th Edition: Tara L. Kuther
  254. Cardiovascular Physiology, 9th Edition: David E. Mohrman & Lois Jane Heller
  255. Fundamentals of Physical Geography, 2nd Edition: James Petersen & Dorothy Sack & Robert E. Gabler
  256. Advanced Health Assessment & Clinical Diagnosis in Primary Care, 6th Edition: Joyce E. Dains & Linda Ciofu Baumann & Pamela Scheibel
  257. An Introduction to the Ancient World, 3rd Edition: Lukas de Blois & R.J. van der Spek
  258. University Physics for the Physical and Life Sciences: Volume II, 1st Edition: Philip R. Kesten & David L. Tauck
  259. Cognitive Psychology, 7th Edition: Robert J. Sternberg & Karin Sternberg
  260. Contemporary Nursing: Issues, Trends, & Management, 8th Edition: Barbara Cherry & Susan R. Jacob
  261. How Psychology Works: The Facts Visually Explained, 1st Edition: Dorling Kindersley
  262. Cases in Health Care Marketing, 1st Edition: John L. Fortenberry
  263. Understanding Vineyard Soils, 2nd Edition: Robert E. White
  264. Foundations of Materials Science and Engineering, 6th Edition: William Smith
  265. Cultural Intimacy: Social Poetics and the Real Life of States, Societies, and Institutions, 3rd Edition: Michael Herzfeld
  266. Reading Sounds: Closed-Captioned Media and Popular Culture, 1st Edition: Sean Zdenek
  267. Behavioral Problems in Geography Revisited, 1st Edition: Kevin R Cox & Reginald Golledge
  268. The Economics of Recreation, Leisure and Tourism, 6th Edition: John Tribe
  269. HBR Guide to Persuasive Presentations: Nancy Duarte
  270. Give Me Liberty!: An American History, Volume 1, Seagull Sixth Edition: Eric Foner
  271. Yoder-Wise's Leading and Managing in Canadian Nursing, 2nd Edition: Janice Waddell & Nancy Walton
  272. Introduction to Econometrics, 4th Edition: James H. Stock & Mark W. Watson
  273. Statistical Physics, 2nd Edition: Franz Mandl
  274. Orthopedic Physical Assessment (Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation), 6th Edition: David J. Magee
  275. International Law for International Relations, 1st Edition: Basak Cali
  276. Omt Review: A Comprehensive Review in Osteopathic Medicine, 3rd Edition: Robert G. Savarese
  277. Health Research Methods: A Canadian Perspective: Kate Bassil
  278. IT Essentials Companion Guide v7, 1st Edition: Cisco Networking Academy
  279. Wright & Leahey's Nurses and Families: A Guide to Family Assessment and Intervention, 7th Edition: Zahra Shajani & Diana Snell
  280. The Power of Framing: Creating the Language of Leadership, 2nd Edition: Gail T. Fairhurst
  281. Agile Estimating and Planning (Robert C. Martin Series), 1st Edition: Mike Cohn
  282. Database Systems: The Complete Book, 2nd Edition: Hector Garcia-Molina & Jeffrey D. Ullman & Jennifer Widom
  283. Attacking Faulty Reasoning, 7th Edition: T. Edward Damer
  284. Biology: The Essentials, 3rd Edition: Mariëlle Hoefnagels
  285. Becoming a Professional Life Coach: Lessons from the Institute of Life Coach Training, 2nd Edition: Diane S. Menendez & Patrick Williams
  286. Essentials of Nursing Leadership & Management, 7th Edition: Sally A Weiss & Ruth M Tappen & Karen Grimley
  287. Rereading America: Cultural Contexts for Critical Thinking and Writing, 11th Edition: Gary Colombo & Robert Cullen & Bonnie Lisle
  288. The Business of Media Distribution: Monetizing Film, TV, and Video Content in an Online World, 3rd Edition: Jeffrey C. Ulin
  289. Macroeconomics: Canada in the Global Environment, 10th Edition: Robin Bade Michael Parkin
  290. Statistics in Action: Understanding a World of Data, 2nd Edition: Ann E. Watkins & Richard L. Scheaffer & George W. Cobb
  291. Clinical Handbook of Couple Therapy, 5th Edition: Alan S. Gurman & Jay L. Lebow & Douglas K. Snyder
  292. Occupational Safety and Health in the Emergency Services, 4th Edition: James S. Angle
  293. Racism without Racists: Color-Blind Racism and the Persistence of Racial Inequality in America, 5th Edition: Eduardo Bonilla-Silva
  294. Handbook for the Humanities, 1st Edition: Janetta Rebold Benton & Robert DiYanni
  295. A Comprehensive Guide to Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 2nd Edition: Michael L. Wehmeyer & Ivan Brown & Maire Percy & W.L. Alan Fung & Karrie A. Shogren
  296. Shelly Cashman Series Microsoft Office 365 & Office 2016: Introductory, 1st Edition: Misty E. Vermaat & Steven M. Freund & Corinne Hoisington & Eric Schmieder & Mary Z. Last
  297. Pediatric Primary Care: Practice Guidelines for Nurses, 4th Edition: Beth Richardson
  298. Abnormal Psychology, 8th Edition: Susan Nolen-Hoeksema
  299. Assessment is Essential, 1st Edition: Susan Green & Robert Johnson
  300. Economics, 19th Edition: Paul Samuelson & William Nordhaus
  301. CompTIA Security+ Practice Tests: Exam SY0-501, 1st Edition: S. Russell Christy & Chuck Easttom
  302. Theory and Design for Mechanical Measurements, 6th Edition: Richard S. Figliola & Donald E. Beasley
  303. Looking at Philosophy: The Unbearable Heaviness of Philosophy Made Lighter, 5th Edition: Donald Palmer
  304. Marketing, 4th Canadian Edition: Dhruv Grewal & Michael Levy & Shirley Lichti
  305. Social Psychology of Emotion, 1st Edition: Darren Ellis
  306. Rainbow's End: The Crash of 1929 (Pivotal Moments in American History), 1st Edition: Maury Klein
  307. Your Office: Microsoft Access 2016 Comprehensive, 1st Edition: Amy S. Kinser & Brant Moriarity & Eric Kinser & Diane Kosharek
  308. Zero Trust Networks: Building Secure Systems in Untrusted Networks, 1st Edition: Evan Gilman & Doug Barth
  309. Investment Valuation: Tools and Techniques for Determining the Value of Any Asset, 3rd Edition: Aswath Damodaran
  310. Essentials of Accounting, 11th Edition: Leslie K. Breitner & Robert N. Anthony
  311. Essentials of Health Information Management: Principles and Practices, 2nd Edition: Michelle Green & Mary Jo Bowie
  312. Financial Accounting, 10th Edition: Robert Libby & Patricia Libby & Frank Hodge
  313. Clinical Psychology: Science, Practice, and Diversity, 5th Edition: Andrew M. Pomerantz
  314. An Introduction to American Law, 3rd Edition: Daniel Rosen & Bruce Aronson & David G. Litt
  315. The Intelligent Investor, Revised Edition: Benjamin Graham & Jason Zweig & Warren E. Buffett
  316. Introduction to Neuropsychopharmacology, 1st Edition: Leslie Iversen & Susan Iversen & Floyd E. Bloom & Robert H. Roth
  317. Study Guide for Pharmacology and the Nursing Process, 9th Edition: Linda Lane Lilley & Julie S. Snyder & Shelly Rainforth Collins
  318. Corporate Computer Security, 4th Edition: Randy J. Boyle & Raymond R. Panko
  319. Linear Algebra: A Modern Introduction, 4th Edition: David Poole
  320. The One-Hour Activist: The 15 Most Powerful Actions You Can Take to Fight for the Issues and Candidates You Care About, 1st Edition: Christopher Kush
  321. Likeable Social Media, Revised and Expanded, 2nd Edition: Dave Kerpen
  322. Essential MATLAB for Engineers and Scientists, 7th Edition: Brian Hahn & Daniel Valentine
  323. History and Systems of Psychology, 7th Edition: James F. Brennan & Keith A. Houde
  324. Pain-Related Fear:Exposure-Based Treatment of Chronic Pain: Exposure-Based Treatment, 1st Edition: Johan W. Vlaeyen & Stephen J. Morley & Steven J. Linton & Katja Boersma & Jeroen de Jong
  325. Introductory Medical-Surgical Nursing, 12th Edition: Barbara Kuhn Timby & Nancy E. Smith
  326. Interviewing in Action in a Multicultural World, 5th Edition: Bianca Cody Murphy & Carolyn Dillon
  327. Business Law: Text & Cases, An Accelerated Course: 14th Edition: Roger LeRoy Miller
  328. The Ethics of Coaching Sports: Moral, Social and Legal Issues, 1st Edition: Robert Simon
  329. University Physics with Modern Physics, 15th Edition: Hugh D. Young & Roger A. Freedman
  330. The Heart of Yoga: Developing a Personal Practice, 2nd Edition: T. K. V. Desikachar
  331. Vertebrate Life, 10th Edition: F. Harvey Pough & Christine M. Janis
  332. Renewable Energy Resources, 3rd Edition: John Twidell & Tony Weir
  333. Neuroscience: Fundamentals for Rehabilitation, 5th Edition: Laurie Lundy-Ekman
  334. Advocacy in the Human Services, 1st Edition: Mark Ezell
  335. Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy: A Multicultural Perspective, 7th Edition: Allen E. Ivey & Michael J. D′Andrea & Mary Bradford Ivey
  336. Principles of Corporate Finance, 10th Edition: Brealey & Myers & Allen
  337. Introduction to Law for Paralegals: A Critical Thinking Approach, 7th Edition: Katherine A. Currier & Thomas E. Eimermann
  338. Leading in a Culture of Change Personal Action Guide and Workbook: Michael Fullan
  339. The Fast Forward MBA in Project Management, 4th Edition: Eric Verzuh
  340. Health Informatics: An Interprofessional Approach, 2nd Edition: Ramona Nelson & Nancy Staggers
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Bitcoin Q&A Who determines the value of bitcoin LAST TIME THIS HAPPENED BITCOIN PRICE SAW 200% GAINS!  IT'S HAPPENING AGAIN... BITCOIN BREAKING NOW??! EXACT PRICE TARGET IF THIS PATTERN BREAKS - MASSIVE FAKEOUT POTENTIAL!!! Digital Currency Has Real Value — Here’s Why  CNBC Why Does Bitcoin Have Value? - D-Central

The currency’s value more than doubled in 2016 to reach $1,029 on Tuesday, a three-year high, as data from CoinDesk, a bitcoin-tracking website, shows. AD Bitcoin was created in 2008 by an In a new report published by Brookings yesterday, the Honorable Timothy G. Massad, Senior Fellow at The John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, Former Chairman of the Commodity The Blockchain is a foundational technology, like TCP/IP, which enables the Internet. And much like the Internet in the late 1990s, we don’t know exactly how the Blockchain will evolve, but The U.S. is undergoing a historic experiment in doing "whatever it takes" to indefinitely prop up the economy through stimulus checks and massive multi-trillion dollar bailouts.. The coronavirus Bitcoin has an equivalent value in real currency. It can be digitally traded between users. You can also purchase and exchange bitcoin with real currencies (such as U.S. dollars). The most common ways to obtain bitcoin are through virtual currency ATMs or online exchanges, which typically charge nominal transaction fees.

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Bitcoin Q&A Who determines the value of bitcoin

In principle, the price of Bitcoin determines the cost of mining, not the other way around. There is no intrinsic value based on the cost of electricity for the mine. Very only, people mine ... Some really interesting bitcoin data suggesting that Btc price is setting up really well for the next bull market. Institutional buyers are buying, btc holders are holding, and exchanges really do ... Skip & Shannon react to Patrick Mahomes' $450M 10-year extension with Chiefs NFL UNDISPUTED - Duration: 24:21. Skip and Shannon: UNDISPUTED 543,939 views. New Bitcoin Price Predictions From Zero to Millions Experts Opinions - Duration: 22:16. Aimstone 38,829 views. 22:16. How To Play The Coming Explosive Move - Futures, Options, Volatility Products - ... On January 14, the Hutchins Center on Fiscal and Monetary Policy at Brookings explored the future of distributed ledger technology, paying special attention to the innovation’s impact on ...