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A PC-User's Purchase "Guide" (it's not...just the ramblings of an idiot) to High Quality Audio on your system.

Hello friends, today I'd like to talk about an aspect of our glorious systems that get overlooked a lot: our audio experience on our battlestations. Thanks to paoper for formatting. Again disclaimer that I am an idiot, so take this post with a grain of salt. Better info and more accurate info from people way more knowledgeable than I am is readily available from /audiophile /budgetaudiophile and /headphones, this is just a start-up guide for the beginner.
NOTE: The monster I gave birth to has become too long. I felt that instead of a short list of things to order, I needed to give context as high fidelity is really all about what sound is like in your experience. Also a fun read if you are interested. Feel free to skip to the actual list (ctrl+f active speakers, passive speakers, headphones, subwoofer, amplifier)!
I have limited the price range of the products, because this is after all just food for thought and not even a proper guide; real audio purchases will require elbow-grease and research from your end to see if the product's sound signature will match your preferences in music and sound. If your product is not here, do not worry. I have put in products that I have had experience with and those that were recommended by multiple reviewers I hold in high regard (with the exception of a 2.1 system you will see later), and I had to consider the endless number of headphones/speakers vs the ones that are worth your hard-earned cash (and products vs how they compare to my current setup which includes both "high-end" and budget options).

Introduction

I've been building systems for myself and others since I randomly took a buildapc course in middle school (currently 28) and enjoy music very much (I grew up on linkin park, dre, biggie smalls, 3 6 mafia, tupac, ac/dc, red hot chilli peppers am fond of electro and dubstep and various genres of music). I have 2 decades of experience playing saxophone, clarinet, and the electric guitar, and have performed in jazz bands, rock bands, and an orchestra. My ear is highly trained from raw musical performance and not just listening to speakers from home, as well as having the nuance to differentiate between good speakers. I have owned many many forms of audio gear (instruments, speakers, headphones, studio monitors).

So wtf is this?

So occasionally while answering questions on this subreddit (mainly on why new builder's systems aren't posting, or what components they should get, or just mourning with fellow builders for systems that have passed on as well as celebrating the birth of new systems and fellow pc builders who take their rite of passage of building their own system with their own two hands) I would come across the occasional "what speakers/headphones are best under $xx" and with the state of pc products being "gaming rgb ultimate series XLR" or w/e, it's hard to discern what audio products are actually worth your money. Note that if you are using just "good enough" cheap speakers, any of the speakers/headphones on this list will blow your mind away. Get ready to enter a new world of audio.

Why should I bother getting better speakers/headphones?

I have owned $20 logitech speakers, I currently own $1500 speakers. I have owned varying levels of headphones. The first half-decent (to my standards) speakers I had was a hand me down stereo set from an uncle. This thing was massive, but this thing was good. It's difficult to explain to you the sensation of music enveloping you with great speakers. Speakers are meant to reproduce sound, as in the sound of the instruments in the song. So great speakers and headphones can literally make you FEEL the music like at a rave or a concert or performance in the comfort of your home. This is why Home Theaters were so popular in the 80s/90s.
Upgrading will GREATLY enhance your music, netflix and gaming experience. In fact with passive bookshelf speakers, you can not only use them for your desktop setup, but also chuck them together with a tv and you've got a fine starter home theater system in your hands. You can even upgrade down the line incrementally, one speaker at a time, to a 2.1, 3.1, 5.1, 5.2, 7.2 Dolby Atmos Home Theater Setup where your movies make you feel like your in SPARTAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA.
I currently live in a small apartment with my TV right next to my battlestation, and when i want to sit down on my couch and watch TV, I simply move 1 speaker from my desk to next to my TV, turn my AVR on and I have an easy 5.1 home theater in my tiny apartment. Move the speaker, revert back to 2.1 (or 5.1 if i choose to but i dont because of badspeaker placement when I'm sitting at my desk) amazingness at my battlestation. Consider this an investment into massively improving your experience of playing video games, watching netflix, or listening to music. You think those 4k graphics and ULTRAWIDE monitor is giving you more immersion in your game? Shit...having great speakers or headphones can make you feel like you're IN NORMANDY BEACH DURING THE FUCKING LANDINGS

General considerations (or feel free to just skip ahead to the list)

Now, I totally understand using simple logitech speakers due to budget/space/easy-access from best buy or not knowing about the wider audio world. So I am here today to give you a perspective on what audio components are TRULY worth your hard-earned cash. I have owned $20 logitech speakers in college, I have owned guitar amps as well as studio monitors/other speakers ranging from $100-$1500. Do know that all of this information is readily available in /BudgetAudiophile /audiophile and /headphones . I am merely condensing all of it into a single list, and attempt to sort of explain it to the pc builders, or just an idiot rambling.
If you would like more information on specific speakers, I would check out reviewers on youtube like zerofidelity, steve guttenberg, nextbigthing (nbt) studios, and thomas and stereo. For headphones, metal751, innerfidelity, Ishca's written reviews, DMS.
Z reviews is okay and he reviews everything from amps and dacs to speakers and headphones, but he gives 90% of his products good reviews, and has affiliate links to every single product he reviews....so you see where my dislike of him as a reviewer comes from. He is still an expert audiophile , he just chooses to not use his knowledge and ramble on in his videos, plus the shilling. Great place to start for audiophiles, as he is still a professional. I just think many move on to other reviewers.
Also with speakers, speaker placement is extremely important. Get those speakers off your desk and the woofers/tweeters to your ear level NO MATTER THE COST. Stack boxes/books, buy speaker stands/isolation pads from amazon, at worst buy yoga blocks from amazon. Put your speakers on them, get ready for even better audio.
General rule of thumb: dont buy HiFi at msrp. There are ALWAYS deals on speakers/headphones to take advantage of at any given time (massdrop for headphones, parts-express, accessories4less, crutchfield, adorama, Sweetwater, guitar center, etc). Speakers will get cheaper over time as manufacturers have to make room for new products/refreshes of the same models just as with headphones. If theres a particular headphone model you want, check to see if massdrop has it (website where users of the website decide what niche products the website will mass order, and both the website and you the users get reduced pricing).
Now this list is just simple guide. Obviously for $150 budget, theres probably like 10 different speakers to choose from. You will catch me repeat this many many times but sound is subjective, I don't know what genres of music you enjoy and what sound signatures in headphones/speakers you would prefer (warm sounds? bright? aggressively forward? laid back sound signature? importance of clarity vs bass?) So consider this list with a grain of salt, as this is after all, the ramblings of an idiot on reddit.

Categories

So I will be splitting this list into 4 categories:
And before I start, bass depth and low end does not fucking equal bad boomy bass. I absolutely detest low quality boomy bass like in Beats headphones and general "gaming speakers" or w/e. Also the budetaudiophile starter package is the dayton audio b652 + mini amp combo from parts-express. All the speakers that were considered were basically compared to the b652 before making it on here (and whether they justified the price bump over the b652)

Active vs. Passive (crude explanation)

So when a speaker plays music from your pc, the audio is processed by the audio card on your motherboard, which is then sent to the amplifier where the signal is amplified, and then finally is sent to be played on your speakers. Active speakers like logitech speakers that have a power cable running from the speakers directly to the wall socket have built-in amplifiers to power the speakers, whereas passive speakers require a separate amplifier to amplify the audio signal and feed the speakers power. Active vs passive, no real difference as both types of speakers will have good audio quality depending on how they are made and which ones you buy, but in the ultra budget section of speakers (under $300) actives tend to be cheaper than their passive counter parts. This is due to the manufacturer cutting corners elsewhere.
Take for instance the Micca MB42X passive speakers($90) which also have a brother, the Micca PB42X ($120) powered speakers. Same exact speaker, but built in amp vs the amp you buy. Obviously the mb42x will sound marginally better purely from the virtue that the amplifier is not inside the goddamn box. But the mb42x + amp + speaker wire will probably cost you anywhere from basic $130 to $200 with difference in amplifier and whether you use bare speaker wire or banana plugs/cables. Cabling aesthetics and management will be greatly affected, with sound quality affected to a lesser degree, or more (but at what cost?). Amp choice to be explained later.
Now generally speakers should be recommended based on your music/audio preferences and tastes as speakers and in a larger part, speaker brands will have their own unique sound signatures that some will love and others will hate as sound is such a subjective experience. But since this is meant to cater to a wide audience, note that my list is not the ALL inclusive, and again is only the ramblings of an idiot.

BLUETOOTH SPEAKERS

If you want to add bluetooth capabilities to your wires active or passive speakers, simply buy the esinkin W29 wireless bluetooth module, plug your speakers in, connect to your bluetooth on pc/phone/w/e, enjoy.

ACTIVE SPEAKERS

Simply connect to your PC or TV via 3.5mm (or the occasional usb).
Note: you may experience a hissing with active speakers that may annoy you to no end even up to the $400 mark. This is a result of the amplifier being built in to the speaker in close proximity, as well as sometimes the manufacturer cutting corners elsewhere. Passive speakers do not have this unless you buy a really shitty amp. Note that while bigger woofer size does not necessarily indicate better quality/bass, this does more often than not seem to be the case as manufacturers put bigger woofers on the higher stepup model.
Note that while I have included 2.1 systems here, I would always recommend you get good bookshelves first, save up money and buy a subwoofer separate.

Example options

PASSIVE SPEAKERS

These speakers will require you to buy a separate amplifier, as well as separate cables. But the passive route allows you to have a modular audio system that allows you to upgrade parts as you go along in your life (yes I said life for once you dip your toes into high fidelity, you will get hooked onto a great lifelong journey searching for the perfect setup), or even just add parts in altogether (like having a miniamp on your desk for your passive speakers, having a separate dac or bluetooth module for your speakers so you can connect the passive speakers via USB or bluetooth wirelessly, stacked on top of a headphone dac/amp combo, stacked on top of a preamp, etc). Amplifier list to follow later.
Passive speaker specs to pay attention to will be their impedance (measured in ohms) and their sensitivity (measured in xx db/1w/1m). Speaker ratings in wattage are measurements of how much power can be driven to them (higher watts, higher volume...once again crude explanation). A 20 watt x 2 channel amp (measured in 4 ohms) is enough to power 4 and 6 ohm speakers rated at 100 watts to moderate/decently loud listening levels on your desktop. Now the sensitivity thing. A speaker with a rating of 85db/1m/1w means it will produce 85 decibels of noise at 1 meter with 1 watt of power. Now this not linear....to make the same speaker go up to 90 decibels may require 10 or 15 watts of power depending on other variables. Depending on how loudly you play your music and what impedance/sensitivity your speakers have will result in your choice of amplifiers. More on this later.
The thing about passive bookshelf speakers are that you can use them in your desktop setup, AND with your TV as a legitimate starter 2.1 home theater setup (which you can upgrade to 3.1, and then 5.1/5.2, just buy a used receiver from craigslist for 50 bucks, ez)

What you will need for passive setup:

Note that passive speakers and amp require you to purchase speaker wire separately (fairly cheap) and strip them (youtube video will guide you, very easy). Or if you like clean cable management and easy setups, banana plug cables from amazon will set you straight, and while these banana plugs and cable are nice and PURELY OPTIONAL, they will add up in cost as your buy more of them for frankenstein 2.1 cabling. Also a 3.5mm to rca cable will be required. The connection will be your pc -> 3.5mm->rca->amp->speaker wire-> speaker wire->speaker. (replace speaker wire with banana plug if going that route). Subwoofer connection will be explained in subwoofer section.

Example options

AMPLIFIERS

Okay here is where we need to get into specific numbers. Active speakers have built-in amplifiers so they are exempt. But passive speakers will require separate amps and so you will need to pay attention to certain specs. In speakers you will need to pay attention to their impedance (measured in ohms) and their sensitivity (measured in xx db/1m/1w). The typical mini amplifier will be class D (small form factor amps for desktop use) and their wattage per channel will be usually expressed in 4ohms. Take for instance the popular SMSL SA50. This is an amp that delivers 50 watts to its 2 channels, rated at 4 ohms. Speakers will have impedance of 4, 6, or 8 ohms usually. 50 watts at 4 ohms can be 25 watts at 8 ohms, but is probably more like 20 watts at 8 ohms, refer to product specs for specific wattage ratings at specific ohms. Speakers with high sensitivity (85-95 db/1w/1m) that have 6 ohm impedance are easier to drive with lower wattage.
But here's the thing, an the smsl sa50 will not deliver 50 CLEAN watts. Somewhere in the 30-40w range distortion will start to appear. But for reference, 30 clean watts is enough to drive sony cs5s to uncomfortably loud levels in an apartment (the whole apt, not just your room) so listening on your desktop, you only really need 10-15 clean watts (only after turning up your preamp input to maximum volume, which in this case is your youtube/windows10 volume level). Do note that if you have the space, a used $60 AV Receiver that will just shit out watts and have 5.1 surround will be the best, but these things are massive.

Example options

If you need more watts than the AD18, you're gonna need to get a class a/b amp that just shits out watts for cheap, or get a used av receiver. If you want a new one, the best budget option is the DENON AVR-S540BT 5.2 channel AVR from accessories4less.

SUBWOOFERS

Good subwoofers are expensive, and cheap subwoofers will hurt your listening experience rather than improve it (muddy boomy shitty bass). Your best bet may be to simply find a used subwoofer from craigslist or offerup, just dont get the polk audio PSW10, this is a very common sub you see on the 2nd hand market, because it is a shitty sub and so people get rid of it. Now as to whether you need a subwoofer. If you are in a dorm, don't get a subwoofer. Because.... if you live in a dorm, do not get a fucking subwoofer. Now if you live in a small apartment, fear not, proper subwoofer management will save you noise complaints. A good subwoofer will produce good quality low end you can hear and feel without having to turn up the volume. You want to look at the subwoofer's lowest frequency it can go to. That will show you how "tight" the bass will be. Now, low volume levels on a good sub will produce that bass for you without vibrating your walls (though subwoofer and speaker isolation as well as PLACEMENT (refer to the sub-crawl) will do more for getting the most sound out of your speakers without having to turn up the volume....and just turn off the sub after a reasonable time)
Now as to how to add a subwoofer to your system will depend on what setup you have and the available connections. If your speakers or amplifier has a subwoofer output, simply connect that to your subwoofer, set the crossover freuency (the frequency at which the subwoofer will start making sound) to 80hz, or lower depending on how low of a frequency our bookshelves can go down to.
If your speakers/amp do not have a subwoofer out, you will need to find a subwoofer that has high level speaker inputs. You will need to connect your bookshelves to the speaker outputs on the subwoofer via speaker wire/banana plugs, and then run speaker wire/banana plugs from the subwoofer input to your amplifier, ending with rca to 3.5mm connection to your pc.

Example options

HEADPHONES

Okay, I keep saying headphones and not headsets right. But you ask, Kilroy, you're an idiot. You're posting on buildapc for PC gamers and builders but you're talking headphones and not headsets. How idiotic are you? Pretty big, but friends hear me out. Now I used to live in South Korea, where PC Bangs (internet cafes) set the nation's standards for computers. All the places had to get the best bang for the buck pc gear to stay in business and remain competitive (all 100 computers at these places had like i5-6600k and gtx 1080 in 2015 or something I don't remember, along with mechanical BLUE SWITCH FUCCCCCCKKKKKKKK (imagine 100 blue switch keyboards being smashed on in a small underground area in Seoul) keyboards and decent headsets.
So I have tried MANY MANY different headsets, here is my conclusion. Just get proper headphones and get either get an antlion modmic, or V-MODA Boompro mic both available on amazon. (short list of mics later) or get proper headphones and usb mic. Okay, I have seen the headphone recommendation list, and the only one I would give any (if at all) weight to in the usual pc websites that our subreddit goes to, is the list from rtings. These guys mainly measure monitors and tvs (very well might i add) but the writer for their audio section is lacking it seems.
Please dont get Astro AXX headphones or corsair rgb xxxxxx w/e. Please for the love of god, take your good hard earned cash and get yourself a NICE pair of cans my fellow PC users. The mic part is secondary as GOOD headphones will forever change your PC using and music listening experience FOREVER
The TWO EXCEPTIONS that I have observed to this rule are the Hyperx Clouds and Cooler Master mh751/752.

Example options

Now obviously, there's other choices. A metric fuck load of them. But I had to account for how much you should be paying (price range) for upgrades in sound quality and performance.

Example options (Wireless headsets)

Okay. Wireless headsets, now let's think why do you need a wireless headset? Do you want to walk around your house while on discord? Maybe you want to keep the headset on while having to afk real quick for a smoke break or whatnot.

HEADPHONE AMP/DAC (digital to analogue converter)

My knowledge/experience with headphone amps and dacs are...extremely lacking, I'm more of a speaker guy. But, here is a list for you guys.

MICS

Other mics? Yes, but are they worth the extra $$ for marginally better audio recording? You decide.

Concluding remarks

Cool. Stay safe in these dark times brothers. Have a glorious day.
submitted by Kilroy1311 to buildapc [link] [comments]

PC User's Guide to Hi Quality Audio

Hello friends, today I'd like to talk about an aspect of our glorious systems that get overlooked a lot: our audio experience on our battlestations.
I've been building systems for myself and others since I randomly took a buildapc course in middle school (currently 28) and enjoy music very much (I grew up on linkin park, dre, biggie smalls, 3 6 mafia, tupac, ac/dc, red hot chilli peppers am fond of electro and dubstep and various genres of music). I have 2 decades of experience playing saxophone, clarinet, and the electric guitar, and have performed in jazz bands, rock bands, and an orchestra.
So occasionally while answering questions on this subreddit (mainly on why new builder's systems aren't posting, or what components they should get, or just mourning with fellow builders for systems that have passed on) I would come across the occasional "what speakers/headphones are best under $xx" and with the state of pc products being "gaming rgb ultimate series XLR" or , it's hard to discern what audio products are actually worth your money. Note that if you are using just "good enough" cheap speakers, any of the speakers/headphones on this list will blow your mind away. Get ready to enter a new world of audio.
Now, I totally understand using simple logitech speakers due to budget/space/easy-access from best buy or not knowing about the wider audio world. So I am here today to give you a perspective on what audio components are TRULY worth your hard-earned cash. I have owned $20 logitech speakers in college, I have owned guitar amps as well as studio monitors/other speakers ranging from $100-$1500. Do know that all of this information is readily available in /BudgetAudiophile /audiophile and /headphones . I am merely condensing all of it into a single list, and attempt to sort of explain it to the pc builders, or just an idiot rambling.
Couple things to note: I originally thought I would make a 5 minute low effort post with just a list of speakers and headphones, but this turned out to be longer than I originally anticipated. If I repeat myself in certain sections, it is because I wrote this abomination in multiple sessions with edits....or I'm just an idiot...probably the latter. If you would like more information on specific speakers, I would check out reviewers on youtube like zerofidelity, steve guttenberg, nextbigthing (nbt) studios, and thomas and stereo. For headphones, metal751, innerfidelity, Ishca's written reviews, DMS.
Z reviews is okay and he reviews everything from amps and dacs to speakers and headphones, but he gives 90% of his products good reviews, and has affiliate links to every single product he reviews....so you see where my dislike of him as a reviewer comes from. He still knows his shit and is a great entertainer whilst talking about audio products.
Also with speakers, speaker placement is extremely important. Get those speakers off your desk and the woofers/tweeters to your ear level NO MATTER THE COST. Stack boxes/books, buy speaker stands/isolation pads from amazon, at worst buy yoga blocks from amazon. Put your speakers on them, get ready for even better audio.
General rule of thumb: dont buy HiFi at msrp. There are ALWAYS deals on speakers/headphones to take advantage of at any given time (massdrop for headphones, parts-express, accessories4less). Speakers will get cheaper over time as manufacturers have to make room for new products/refreshes of the same models just as with headphones. If theres a particular headphone model you want, check to see if massdrop has it (website where users of the website decide what niche products the website will mass order, and both the website and you the users get reduced pricing).
Now this list is just simple guide. Obviously for $150 budget, theres probably like 10 different speakers to choose from. You will catch me repeat this many many times but sound is subjective, I don't know what genres of music you enjoy and what sound signatures in headphones/speakers you would prefer (warm sounds? bright? aggressively forward? laid back sound signature? importance of clarity vs bass?) So consider this list with a grain of salt, as this is after all, the ramblings of an idiot on reddit.
So I will be splitting this list into 3 categories: active speakers, passive speakers, headphones and amps/dacs. And before I start, bass depth and low end does not fuc**** equal boomy bass. I absolutely detest low quality boomy bass like in Beats headphones and general "gaming speakers" or w/e.
Active vs. Passive (crude explanation)
So when a speaker plays music from your pc, the audio is processed by the audio card on your motherboard, which is then sent to the amplifier where the signal is amplified, and then finally is sent to be played on your speakers. Active speakers like logitech speakers that have a power cable running from the speakers directly to the wall socket have built-in amplifiers to power the speakers, whereas passive speakers require a separate amplifier to amplify the audio signal and feed the speakers power. Active vs passive, no real difference as both types of speakers will have good audio quality depending on how they are made and which ones you buy, but in the ultra budget section of speakers (under $300) actives tend to be cheaper than their passive counter parts. This is due to the manufacturer cutting corners elsewhere.
Take for instance the Micca MB42X passive speakers($90) which also have a brother, the Micca PB42X ($120) powered speakers. Same exact speaker, but built in amp vs the amp you buy. Obviously the mb42x will sound marginally better purely from the virtue that the amplifier you buy will be better than the shitty one in the pb42x. But the mb42x + amp + speaker wire will probably cost you anywhere from basic $130 to $200 with difference in amplifier and whether you use bare speaker wire or banana plugs/cables. Cabling aesthetics and management will be greatly affected, with sound quality affected to a lesser degree, or more (but at what cost?). Amp choice to be explained later.
Now generally speakers should be recommended based on your music/audio preferences and tastes as speakers and in a larger part, speaker brands will have their own unique sound signatures that some will love and others will hate as sound is such a subjective experience. But since this is meant to cater to a wide audience, note that my list is not the ALL inclusive, and again is only the ramblings of an idiot.
BLUETOOTH SPEAKERS
If you want to add bluetooth capabilities to your wires active or passive speakers, simply buy the esinkin W29 wireless bluetooth module, plug your speakers in, connect to your bluetooth on pc/phone/w/e, enjoy.
ACTIVE SPEAKERS
Note: you may experience a hissing with active speakers that may annoy you to no end even up to the $400 mark. This is a result of the amplifier being built in to the speaker in close proximity, as well as sometimes the manufacturer cutting corners elsewhere. Passive speakers do not have this unless you buy a really shitty amp. Note that while bigger woofer size does not necessarily indicate better quality/bass, this does more often than not seem to be the case as manufacturers put bigger woofers on the higher stepup model.
PASSIVE SPEAKERS
These speakers will require you to buy a separate amplifier, as well as separate cables. But the passive route allows you to have a modular audio system that allows you to upgrade parts as you go along in your life, or even just add parts in altogether (like having a miniamp on your desk for your passive speakers, having a separate dac or bluetooth module for your speakers so you can connect the passive speakers via USB or bluetooth wirelessly, stacked on top of a headphone dac/amp combo, stacked on top of a preamp, etc). Amplifier list to follow later.
Passive speaker specs to pay attention to will be their impedance (measured in ohms) and their sensitivity (measured in xx db/1w/1m). Speaker ratings in wattage are measurements of how much power can be driven to them (higher watts, higher volume...once again crude explanation). A 20 watt x 2 channel amp (measured in 4 ohms) is enough to power 4 and 6 ohm speakers rated at 100 watts to moderate/decently loud listening levels on your desktop. Now the sensitivity thing. A speaker with a rating of 85db/1m/1w means it will produce 85 decibels of noise at 1 meter with 1 watt of power. Now this not linear....to make the same speaker go up to 90 decibels may require 10 or 15 watts of power depending on other variables. Depending on how loudly you play your music and what impedance/sensitivity your speakers have will result in your choice of amplifiers. More on this later.
The thing about bookshelf speakers are that you can use them in your desktop setup, AND with your TV as a legitimate starter 2.1 home theater setup (which you can upgrade to 3.1, and then 5.1/5.2, just buy a used receiver from craigslist for 50 bucks, ez)
Note that passive speakers and amp require you to purchase speaker wire separately (fairly cheap) and strip them (youtube video will guide you, very easy). Or if you like clean cable management and easy setups, banana plug cables from amazon will set you straight, and while these cables are very nice, they will add up in cost as your buy more of them for frankenstein 2.1 cabling. Also a 3.5mm to rca cable will be required. The connection will be your pc -> 3.5mm->rca->amp->speaker wire-> speaker wire->speaker. (replace speaker wire with banana plug if going that route). Subwoofer connection will be explained in subwoofer section.
AMPLIFIERS
Okay here is where we need to get into specific numbers. Active speakers have built-in amplifiers so they are exempt. But passive speakers will require separate amps and so you will need to pay attention to certain specs. In speakers you will need to pay attention to their impedance (measured in ohms) and their sensitivity (measured in xx db/1m/1w). The typical mini amplifier will be class D (small form factor amps for desktop use) and their wattage per channel will be usually expressed in 4ohms. Take for instance the popular SMSL SA50. This is an amp that delivers 50 watts to its 2 channels, rated at 4 ohms. Speakers will have impedance of 4, 6, or 8 ohms usually. 50 watts at 4 ohms can be 25 watts at 8 ohms, but is probably more like 20 watts at 8 ohms, refer to product specs for specific wattage ratings at specific ohms. Speakers with high sensitivity (85-95 db/1w/1m) that have 6 ohm impedance are easier to drive with lower wattage.
But here's the thing, an the smsl sa50 will not deliver 50 CLEAN watts. Somewhere in the 30-40w range distortion will start to appear. But for reference, 30 clean watts is enough to drive sony cs5s to uncomfortably loud levels in an apartment (the whole apt, not just your room) so listening on your desktop, you only really need 10-15 clean watts. Do note that if you have the space, a used AV Receiver that will just shit out watts and have 5.1 surround will be the best, but these things are massive.
If you need more watts than the AD18, you're gonna need to get a class a/b amp that just shits out watts for cheap, or get a used av receiver. If you want a new one, the best budget option is the DENON AVR-S540BT 5.2 channel AVR from accessories4less.
SUBWOOFERS
Good subwoofers are expensive, and cheap subwoofers will hurt your listening experience rather than improve it (muddy boomy shitty bass). Your best bet may be to simply find a used subwoofer from craigslist or offerup, just dont get the polk audio PSW10, this is a very common sub you see on the 2nd hand market, because it is a shitty sub and so people get rid of it. Now as to whether you need a subwoofer. If you are in a dorm, don't get a subwoofer. Because.... if you live in a dorm, do not get a fucking subwoofer. Now if you live in a small apartment, fear not, proper subwoofer management will save you noise complaints. A good subwoofer will produce good quality low end you can hear and feel without having to turn up the volume. You want to look at the subwoofer's lowest frequency it can go to. That will show you how "tight" the bass will be. Now, low volume levels on a good sub will produce that bass for you without vibrating your walls (though subwoofer and speaker isolation
Now as to how to add a subwoofer to your system will depend on what setup you have and the available connections. If your speakers or amplifier has a subwoofer output, simply connect that to your subwoofer, set the crossover freuency (the frequency at which the subwoofer will start making sound) to 80hz, or lower depending on how low of a frequency our bookshelves can go down to.
If your speakers/amp do not have a subwoofer out, you will need to find a subwoofer that has high level speaker inputs . You will need to connect your bookshelves to the speaker outputs on the subwoofer via speaker wire/banana plugs, and then run speaker wire/banana plugs from the subwoofer input to your amplifier, ending with rca to 3.5mm connection to your pc.
HEADPHONES
Okay, I keep saying headphones and not headsets right. But you ask, Kilroy, you're an idiot. You're posting on buildapc for PC gamers and builders but you're talking headphones and not headsets. How idiotic are you? Pretty big, but friends hear me out. Now I used to live in South Korea, where PC Bangs (internet cafes) set the nation's standards for computers. All the places had to get the best bang for the buck pc gear to stay in business and remain competitive (all 100 computers at these places had like i5-6600k and gtx 1080 in 2015 or something I don't remember, along with mechanical BLUE SWITCH FUCCCCCCKKKKKKKK (imagine 100 blue switch keyboards being smashed on in a small underground area in Seoul) keyboards and decent headsets.
So I have tried MANY MANY different headsets, here is my conclusion. Just get proper headphones and get either get an antlion modmic, or V-MODA Boompro mic both available on amazon. (short list of mics later) or get proper headphones and usb mic. The TWO EXCEPTIONS that I have observed to this rule are the Hyperx Clouds and Cooler Master mh751/752.
WIRELESS HEADSETS
Okay. Wireless headsets, now let's think why do you need a wireless headset? Do you want to walk around your house while on discord? Maybe you want to keep the headset on while having to afk real quick for a smoke break or whatnot.
MICS
Cool.
submitted by Kilroy1311 to pcmasterrace [link] [comments]

Fiber Internet DIY pfSense - Fiber Transceiver & Switch Questions - SINGTEL ISP

Fiber Internet DIY pfSense - Fiber Transceiver & Switch Questions - SINGTEL ISP
This is a long read but it reflects the invested research time into setting up a home network upgrade to fiber internet service with the potential to upgrade to 10gbit service. The post is actually pasted from my document I am working on to share the journey and instructions with others. It also reflects the days of reading that were dedicated to this before asking the questions at the end of the post.
If any additional advice or questions are warranted - I greatly look forward to the dialogue.

Introduction

I have recently moved to Singapore with my family and will be here for the next three years. After settling into our new home, we started to implement some creature comforts such as internet because our cell phone data plans were becoming troublesome due to data limits with pre-paid SIM cards. We opted to do business with Singtel and acquired cell phone plans in addition to an internet and home phone plan. Regarding our internet plan, Singtel provided the standard of what most internet service providers (ISPs) lease to customers in the United States. Most technical folks will find the hardware and software lacking and will desire to upgrade this equipment after cursory investigation.
After researching some of the articles available from Singtel regarding fiber internet options, I concluded to investigate further outside of their site. There have been some forum posts dating as far back as 2010 but nothing truly comprehensive or concrete in the past three years. My first Google Search displayed nearly nothing which I was looking for and ultimately led to a deep dive about fiber internet technology.

Hardware & Software to Run It All

There are countless articles written on a variety of off the shelf equipment and software to utilize for home networking needs. In the beginning of my network tinkering in the late 1990s, I was investing into Linksys Wireless Routers that allowed for flashing custom firmware. DD-WRT and Open-WRT would become the tipping point to my dabbling and passion for network configuration and research. Nowadays I have been running pfSense since roughly 2003 and have only done vague investigations into custom firmware due to the hardware pfSense can run on. For the sake of this research revolving around gigabit fiber, my goal was to build a device that could facilitate small to medium businesses to future proof the device.

Network Router + Firewall

The website “The Geek Pub” has a great article, “The Best pfSense Hardware for Businesses” which I reviewed. Based upon the very first recommendation, the goal is to run the SuperMicro SuperServer E300-8D server. The equipment has two SFP+ Ports allowing for up to 10G each. The goal would be to connect the incoming fiber from the ISP to one port, and the other to a 10G Base-T Ethernet Switch.

Network Switches

The goal would be to future proof for the long-term. I see the options being potentially the NETGEAR 10-Port Multi-Gigabit/10G Smart Managed Pro PoE Switch (MS510TXPP) or the NETGEAR 8-Port 10G Ethernet Smart Managed Plus Switch (XS708E). The latter being significantly future proof but lacking the PoE that I use for other equipment. (Power-over-Ethernet [PoE] Wireless Access Points [WAP]) The WAP do not require anything over a gigabit – so I would be wasting a port on the 10Gig switch – which is why I plan to keep the other 1-gigabit PoE Switch in service.

Fiber Internet Starting Point

I cannot recall how I landed at Tutorials Point’s article, FTTH – Quick Guide, but I am thankful that I somehow reached it! The article starts with the most basic concepts of Fiber to the Home (FTTH) and what optical fiber technology entails. I have no affiliation with the site but if you are interested in supporting them for this article, they sell the FTTH Tutorial as a PDF from their site. Additionally, if you plan to go over FTTH in depth, the FTTH Tutorial is the comprehensive review on the site.
For the sake of preparing to upgrade your home equipment for fiber internet, I highly recommend reviewing the FTTH – Quick Guide from beginning to end. There will be sections describing how the technology works, terminology, comparing prior networking technologies, technology standards, etc. There were many new terms and acronyms that I learned along the way and would help my future Google Searches be more successful.

Popular and Regular Terms

Optical Access Network (OAN): The Optical Access Network is an access network towards the network side, it is also known as SNI (Service Network Interface). Up-link ports of OLT connects with L2 Switch Ring of access network. All other in-between components such as ODF/FDMS connected towards SNI comes under the Optical Access Network.
Optical Distribution Network (ODN): In a PON Technology towards downstream side, all passive components from the PON Port of OLT to the PON Port of ONT come under Optical Distribution Network. Normally, Splitter and ODF/FDMS come under this category.
Optical Line Termination (OLT): A Central Office (CO) equipment provides PON with the various network interfaces. One OLT serves multiple ONTs through PON Downstream transmission, i.e., from OLT to ONT is usually TDM. Upstream traffic, i.e., from ONT to OLT is usually TDMA. PON system may be either symmetrical or asymmetrical.
Optical Network Termination (ONT)/ Optical Network Unit (ONU): An Optical Network Termination is a Customer Premises Equipment that provides user interfaces to the customer.
Physical Reach: The maximum physical distance for a transmission system. ‘Physical reach’ is the maximum physical distance between the ONU/ONT and the OLT. In GPON, two options for the physical reach: 10 km and 20 km.
Bit Rate: GPON aims at transmission speeds greater than or equal to 1.2 Gbps. Accordingly, GPON identifies two transmission speed combinations as follows −
· 1.2 Gbps up, 2.4 Gbps down
· 2.4 Gbps up, 2.4 Gbps down
The most important bit rate is 1.2 Gbps upstream and 2.4 Gbps downstream, constituting nearly all the deployed and planned deployment of the GPON systems.
Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Networks (GPON): A way of providing FTTH through a Gigabit Passive Optical Network, or GPON. GPON is a point-to-multipoint access network. Its main characteristic is the use of passive splitters in the fiber distribution network, enabling one single feeding fiber from the provider to serve multiple homes and small businesses. GPON has a downstream capacity of 2.488 Gb/s and an upstream capacity of 1.244 Gbp/s shared among users. Encryption is used to keep each user’s data secured and private from other users. Although there are other technologies that could provide fiber to the home, passive optical networks (PONs) like GPON are generally considered the strongest candidate for widespread deployments.
Ten-Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Network (XG-PON): The “X” in XG is based from the Roman Numeral X or 10. After GPON development, FSAAN and ITU-T started working on Next-Generation Passive Optical Network 1 (NG-PON1) with the following features:
· Low cost product
· Large Capacity
· Wide Coverage
· Backward compatibility
NG-PONs are divided into two phases by FSAN based on the current application demand and technology
· NG PON1 − NGPON1 is backward compatible with legacy GPON ODNs. NG-PON1 has an asymmetric 10G system with 10G downstream/download and 2.5G upstream/upload speed. This NG-PON1 is enhanced TDM PON system from GPON.
· NG PON2 – to be defined later
The main feature of NG-PON1 is to provide higher bandwidth than GPON as the same time. It should be backward compatible with the existing GPON network, which will reduce the operator’s cost. This NG-PON defined by the FSAN and ITU-T is known as XG-PON1.
FSAN and ITU-T has defined the following data rates for XG-PON1:
· Downstream Data Rate − 10G
· Upstream Data Rate − 2.5G
Upstream data rate of 2.5G is twice the upstream data rate of GPON. Apart from all elements of GPON, ODN (optical distribution network) can be reused in XG-PON1 network.
By adding only 10G downstream card in the existing GPON OLT, the GPON enhanced to XG-PON1.

Singtel & FTTH Research

After getting a better understanding of what FTTH is, I opted to review the Singtel site again to determine if I could discover any hardware insights from their equipment. My Google Search for specifically Singapore + Singtel + pfSense resulted in nothing of value and decided to navigate to the Singtel site and visit the FAQ and Support Pages.

Singtel Support Page

I decided to see if I could find any information from the Singtel Support Page and determine the model number of Optical Network Termination (ONT) (Terminals on their site). They had broken down the sections by equipment types. Those listed were Router Guides, Optical Network Terminals (ONT) LED Troubleshooting, and OPTICAL NETWORK Router (ONR) LED TROUBLESHOOTING. (Not sure what happened regarding CAPS LOCK for the final section on the site) The ONT Section caught my eye initially but ultimately did not display any of the equipment models nor imagery of the equipment aside of the front LEDs display. The only crumb of information I had was in the ONR section which clearly indicated the equipment Make and Model as “Huawei HG8224H ONR.”

Investing Extra Time with Google

Since the Singtel Support Page did not specifically provide models for their equipment I had to do manuals searches and find the information I was looking for through a combination of Google Images and external vendor support pages. I was eventually able to find the information below regarding the equipment.

Singtel ONT Models

· ALU ONT = Alcatel-Lucent (Nokia) G-240G-C (GPON ITU-T G.984.3, G.988)
· Ericsson ONT = Ericsson T063G (GPON ITU-T G.984. 1-5)
· ZTE ONT = ZTE ZXA10 F620G (GPON ITU-T G.984. 1-4, G.983.1, G.983.3)
What was also discovered by looking at all these models was the standards at which they operated for Gigabit Passive Optical Network (GPON). This made me pay more attention to the standards provided by the ITU and I wanted to review what was available from a high level review to determine if there would be any concerns regarding the type of optical module acquired. What consistently showed across all three devices was the ITU-T G.984.x standards which I then investigated further on the ITU site. I started with the first iteration at G.984.1 and reviewed the free PDF provided by their site. The table of contents then provided me the standards which to pay the most attention to.

https://preview.redd.it/hdjedzl3ttz41.png?width=1214&format=png&auto=webp&s=cb4948b5f03d86bb4eeeaa3bcec877cdf3530a43
Figure 1. Standards Information for ITU-T regarding Digital Line Systems
I then took to the individual Singtel ONT devices GPON Standards and the ITU Standards page again to capture all the information regarding G.980-G.989 that was relevant to those specific models for my investigation which I have highlighted in the following list below.

https://preview.redd.it/0ahezl15ttz41.png?width=1070&format=png&auto=webp&s=138b8824e2cbb1fd8c0452ac81cd4ee58b2df6e5
Figure 2. List of applicable ITU Standards for Singtel ONT equipment

Huawei Investigation

The Singtel site may have succeeding in getting me the best piece of information I had found so far but further investigation on the Huawei site was the next step. My Google Search for Huawei was able to provide me immediately with the Huawei Support page for the EchoLife HG8244H equipment but any information on the site was behind a paywall. I attempted to access the information via SMS Verification but did not work from my mobile phone. Once that effort resulted in no additional access to the support materials, I moved on to other Google Search results.

Manuals Lib – The Ultimate Manuals Library

Once again, the various pages and searches I was running simultaneously led me to this discovery and sadly how is what I cannot recall. The manual for the “EchoLife” device and its various iterations was now available to me, and more specifically the Physical Specifications and Protocols and Standards.

Investigating the Optical Options

Based upon the information from the EchoLife equipment manual, the specifications for the Protocols and Standards supported the additional research on the Singtel ONT equipment and would grant the ability to finally start a Google Search that would help shopping for a fiber transceiver.
This topic provides the protocols and standards which the ports of the ONT comply with.
· GPON: ITU-T G.984
· VoIP: H.248, SIP, G.711A/u, G.729a/b, and T.38
· Multicast: IGMPv2, IGMPv3, and IGMP snooping
· Routing: NAT, NAPT, and ALG
· Ethernet: IEEE 802.3ab
· USB: USB 1.1/USB 2.0
· Wi-Fi: IEEE 802.11n
Table 1. Protocols and Standards for the EchoLife ONR Model provided by Singtel.
A simple Google Search brings you conveniently to the standards page with the first hit! Once on the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) site, I modified the URL to take me to the various standards to read more into each highlighted in Figures 1 & 2.

What type of Transceiver?

Now that there was a multitude of devices that had similar specifications in their manuals, the next step was to start doing a Google Search that asked the question, “What type of fiber module is required for fiber internet GPON?” One of the results that captured my attention was the question of “SFPs: B+ and C+ - What’s the Difference.” The SFP B+ specification was within one of the Singtel ONT devices’ manual. (The T063G Network Interface description to be exact)

Conclusion and Request for Support

This is where my efforts have come to a head and I am coming to a much larger community for input and advice. I hope that with what is shared I can make this into a post which many others can benefit from as a starting point – which will then be supplemented with a much more involved “How-To” including QoS, VLAN, configuration, some before and after pictures, etc.

The Intended End-State

· Measure twice, cut once. I have done all this research with the intent to have the equipment be suitable for the near and far future. (10Gbit fiber / copper internet)
o Am I right for believing XG-PON / NG-PON1 are to be compatible with GPON due to the ITU standard indicating backwards compatibility?
· Affordability / Compatibility. Since this device will be a FreeBSD – pfSense build, the drivers for any transceiver would need to be compatible with this OS and server chassis
· Recommendation(s) for transceivers between SuperMicro Server and 10gbit switch?
submitted by Chivo-Martillo to singapore [link] [comments]

Kemove 61 snowfox

Update at the end about the software!

This is the first review I’ve done of a keyboard, so I tried to be as thorough as possible but if you have any doubt I’ll try to answer them the best I can. I bought this keyboard with my own money and I’m in no way affiliated to Kemove or Dierya, having that said I hope this proves useful in case you were interested in the keyboard.
I recently got my hands on a Kemove 61 snowfox through banggood. Priced about ~90 usd I wanted to try it specially to know if this could be a good recommendation for a beginner. The most important aspects of this keyboard are that it is hot swappable with MX switches (meaning you can change switches with no soldering required), and the second one is that it has Bluetooth.
It can be paired up to 3 devises and you can switch between them with a combination of the FN key plus Z, X, or C. It has a 3000 mAh which is really good specially compared with the Anne pro 2 1800 mAh battery. Kemove claims this will last up to 15 hours while using the LEDs (surely not at the brightest settings) and probably a lot more while having all the lights of. Speaking of, the LEDs are really bright and colorful, I don’t have a lot of keyboards to compare it to except a Razer blackwidow (one of the most recent versions, honestly the naming confuses me a lot), and I did have an Anne Pro 2 (which I sold so I could justify getting this purchase), and the LEDs in the Kemove are in a whole other league.
The keyboard comes with a keycap puller, a switch puller, a braided usb-c cable, and 3 switches that I think might vary according to the ones in your keyboard. The one I got came with Gateron browns, and I got one Gateron green, one Gateron clear, and one Gateron yellow. It’s nice they included extra switches since these are not replacement but for you to try out others, so that’s cool.
The case looks nice, if you get the white version (like I did) there’s a thin black frame around which I honestly liked, and I look forward to swap to keycaps with a black and white mix to fit my desk set up. The included keycaps are good, PBT, clean looking, with a nice non gamer font but somewhat too common in recent keyboards.
The keyboard itself has a fair standard weight, it won’t be a burden to carry in a backpack and your cat won’t be able to throw it to the ground; it has rubber feet and a couple of legs that help getting a better typing angle. It does not slide while writing and it feels good, I would say it is comparable to an Anne pro 2 in that regard. There’s no excessive flexing on the case.
Now on the keyboard itself, the pcb doesn’t have any standard mounting holes so swapping cases will require some modding.
Swapping the switches is really easy, I haven’t tried a wide variety as I don’t have that many, and I could check form quickly disassembling the whole thing that the hot swap terminals are made by Gateron (as you can check in the pictures). I placed a few of Box Jades without a hassle, and to my pleasure they sound pretty good in this board.
Keymapping is done via the Kemove software so that’s a big ¯\_(ツ)_/¯. Currently the software is in beta and I wasn’t even able to download it on the site and had to write an email to support to get it (I still haven’t got the software and honestly expect the bare minimum from it). The default layout is just what it is, the FN keys sit nice along the arrows and you have to keep pressed FN to use them (no quick tap), but I don’t mind as its similar to a HHKB layout which is what I use in my daily driver (right pinky does all the job). Anyway, it certainly would be nice to have QMK (or at least be able to download the software)
Also worth nothing is that the keyboard has a Mac compatibility button which I haven’t tested as I don’t have a functional Mac around, though I paired it with my ipad (no pro, just plain regular version), and it worked as good as my Anne pro 2 did, though -and this is somewhat a letdown- I did experience a bug while having my ipad paired in the device:
When I used to pair my Anne pro 2 to a device, if I had the on/off switch turned off I could use the keyboard plugged to my pc as a normal kb, but with the Kemove, while I was paired to my ipad but had the switch turned off and the keyboard connected via the usb-c cable, the Kemove kept sending the information to my ipad while it seemed that I had a dead keyboard to my PC. It took me while to figure it out and had to unpair my devices to make it work in the PC properly. I hope this can be fixed via software as it was annoying (especially during the time I was figuring it out) although I can live with it obviously. I haven’t experienced any other problem whatsoever.
Overall, the keyboard feels pretty good, the quality is fine, the case looks nice enough as I didn’t get any urges to look for any other compatible ones as I felt with the Anne pro 2 (which wasn’t bad just forgettable). The nice battery and the hot swap capability plus a fair price are what makes this keyboard a great recommendation in my opinion, so yeah I’d definitely grab it if you are a beginner in this hobby, it’s a solid upgrade from a gk61 or any other cheap hot swap keyboards, though I’d like to see a comparison with the Keychron hot swap version of the K6 I think, but a matter of availability might end up declaring the victor. I wouldn’t doubt getting this keyboard but do notice, I’m not in the market for the most features nor the greatest quality possible (I don’t specially care about RGB and more gamery features), all I wanted was a good keyboard to swap switches, and having Bluetooth, a great battery and nice looks were enough for me to get excited about the Kemove 61.
Pros:
Hot swap.
Great battery.
Nice bright LEDs (if you care about that stuff).
Good enough case and keycaps.
Cons:
Non-standard screw holes so it won’t be easy to find compatible cases.
Proprietary software-based solution to key mapping.

Edit: Yesterday I got a link and updated firmware version from the Kemove support mail, so I tried it for a bit. WARNING: DO NOT INSTALL THIS SOFTWARE, right now it’s completely broken, it’s confusing, buggy, and whenever you attempt to change anything like adding a key function in a layer the software fails to communicate to you if it actually saved the change. It actually crashed when I was attempting to add a static color configuration in the lighting settings, and after that the keyboard started behaving erratically, I had problems using Bluetooth again, and I was scared the keyboard became unusable… BUT after making sure the battery drained completely, the keyboard returned to normal so I’m not touching that POS software with a tent pole stick. The keyboard works fine without the software, so you don’t actually need it. If you really want to change the LEDs lighting profiles that come by default, or want to make serious modifications to the standard layout then simply don’t get this keyboard right now, maybe in a couple of months the software will be fixed.

Also it seems the later version of the software is more stable even if the UI is still confusing :)

UPDATE 27/05/2020: Software and firmware versions are stable if confusing, the software might seem bad but it actually can do some pretty nice stuff in terms of LED animations, also bluetooth works fine too :) I would definitely recommend it now for someone who is just beginning in the hobby or wants a spare kb to carry everywhere :)

Edit2: Fellow redditor u/ooharloo posted recently a video about how to change the light patterns in the software here: https://www.reddit.com/MechanicalKeyboards/comments/ghdm4i/how_to_use_kemoves_apex_app_to_customize_rgb/

Here's a gallery of some pictures I took :) https://imgur.com/a/UtnTdCz
submitted by Revhan to MechanicalKeyboards [link] [comments]

Tools & Info for Sysadmins - Package Management, Load Testing, Virtualization Blog & More

Each week I thought I'd post these SysAdmin tools, tips, tutorials etc.
To make sure I'm following the rules of sysadmin, rather than link directly to our website for sign up for the weekly email I'm experimenting with reddit ads so:
You can sign up to get this in your inbox each week (with extras) by following this link.
Here are the most-interesting items that have come across our desks, laptops and phones this week. As always, EveryCloud has no known affiliation with any of these unless we explicitly state otherwise.
** We're looking for your favorite blogs to share with the community... the ones that help you do your job better and more easily. Please leave a comment with your favorite(s) and we'll be featuring them over the following weeks.

Popular Repost: Tool
Chocolatey brings simple, flexible package management to Windows. This machine-level package manager is built on top of nuget command line and the nuget infrastructure. Covers all aspects of Windows software installation, configuration, upgrade and uninstallation. Create packages, customize packaging templates and host your own package repository. Upgrade all software with a single command. Chocolatey works with existing technologies (like MSI, NSIS, and InnoSetup) as well as runtime binaries and zip archives.

A Free Tool
gobench is an HTTP/HTTPS load testing and benchmarking tool. Binod kindly suggests it to help with performance tuning and optimizing servers and the applications on that run on them.

A Tip
Manage Win 10 devices through G Suite. Companies that use G Suite to manage corporate endpoints are now able to enforce security policies related to login operations, file storage, encryption and more over all enrolled Win 10 devices. This ensures companies have full control so their data can be protected from careless employees. Thanks go to perplexedm for the heads up.

A Blog
Yellow Bricks is a virtualization blog by Duncan Epping, author of several books and Chief Technologist at VMware. Duncan specializes in software defined storage, hyper-converged infrastructures and business-continuity/disaster-recovery solutions. The blog has been voted #1 eight years in a row by the virtualization community. Appreciation goes to moch__ for the recommendation.

Another Tip
When running a continuous Ping operation, press Ctrl-Break to display the statistics without stopping or resetting the counters.

Have a fantastic week and as usual, let me know any comments or suggestions.
u/crispyducks
Enjoy.
submitted by crispyducks to sysadmin [link] [comments]

Fiber Internet DIY pfSense - Fiber Transceiver & Switch Questions - SINGTEL ISP in Singapore

This is a long read but it reflects the invested research time into setting up a home network upgrade to fiber internet service with the potential to upgrade to 10gbit service. The post is actually pasted from my document I am working on to share the journey and instructions with others. It also reflects the days of reading that were dedicated to this before asking the questions at the end of the post.
If any additional advice or questions are warranted - I greatly look forward to the dialogue.

Introduction

I have recently moved to Singapore with my family and will be here for the next three years. After settling into our new home, we started to implement some creature comforts such as internet because our cell phone data plans were becoming troublesome due to data limits with pre-paid SIM cards. We opted to do business with Singtel and acquired cell phone plans in addition to an internet and home phone plan. Regarding our internet plan, Singtel provided the standard of what most internet service providers (ISPs) lease to customers in the United States. Most technical folks will find the hardware and software lacking and will desire to upgrade this equipment after cursory investigation.
After researching some of the articles available from Singtel regarding fiber internet options, I concluded to investigate further outside of their site. There have been some forum posts dating as far back as 2010 but nothing truly comprehensive or concrete in the past three years. My first Google Search displayed nearly nothing which I was looking for and ultimately led to a deep dive about fiber internet technology.

Hardware & Software to Run It All

There are countless articles written on a variety of off the shelf equipment and software to utilize for home networking needs. In the beginning of my network tinkering in the late 1990s, I was investing into Linksys Wireless Routers that allowed for flashing custom firmware. DD-WRT and Open-WRT would become the tipping point to my dabbling and passion for network configuration and research. Nowadays I have been running pfSense since roughly 2003 and have only done vague investigations into custom firmware due to the hardware pfSense can run on. For the sake of this research revolving around gigabit fiber, my goal was to build a device that could facilitate small to medium businesses to future proof the device.

Network Router + Firewall

The website “The Geek Pub” has a great article, “The Best pfSense Hardware for Businesses” which I reviewed. Based upon the very first recommendation, the goal is to run the SuperMicro SuperServer E300-8D server. The equipment has two SFP+ Ports allowing for up to 10G each. The goal would be to connect the incoming fiber from the ISP to one port, and the other to a 10G Base-T Ethernet Switch.

Network Switches

The goal would be to future proof for the long-term. I see the options being potentially the NETGEAR 10-Port Multi-Gigabit/10G Smart Managed Pro PoE Switch (MS510TXPP) or the NETGEAR 8-Port 10G Ethernet Smart Managed Plus Switch (XS708E). The latter being significantly future proof but lacking the PoE that I use for other equipment. (Power-over-Ethernet [PoE] Wireless Access Points [WAP]) The WAP do not require anything over a gigabit – so I would be wasting a port on the 10Gig switch – which is why I plan to keep the other 1-gigabit PoE Switch in service.

Fiber Internet Starting Point

I cannot recall how I landed at Tutorials Point’s article, FTTH – Quick Guide, but I am thankful that I somehow reached it! The article starts with the most basic concepts of Fiber to the Home (FTTH) and what optical fiber technology entails. I have no affiliation with the site but if you are interested in supporting them for this article, they sell the FTTH Tutorial as a PDF from their site. Additionally, if you plan to go over FTTH in depth, the FTTH Tutorial is the comprehensive review on the site.
For the sake of preparing to upgrade your home equipment for fiber internet, I highly recommend reviewing the FTTH – Quick Guide from beginning to end. There will be sections describing how the technology works, terminology, comparing prior networking technologies, technology standards, etc. There were many new terms and acronyms that I learned along the way and would help my future Google Searches be more successful.

Popular and Regular Terms

Optical Access Network (OAN): The Optical Access Network is an access network towards the network side, it is also known as SNI (Service Network Interface). Up-link ports of OLT connects with L2 Switch Ring of access network. All other in-between components such as ODF/FDMS connected towards SNI comes under the Optical Access Network.
Optical Distribution Network (ODN): In a PON Technology towards downstream side, all passive components from the PON Port of OLT to the PON Port of ONT come under Optical Distribution Network. Normally, Splitter and ODF/FDMS come under this category.
Optical Line Termination (OLT): A Central Office (CO) equipment provides PON with the various network interfaces. One OLT serves multiple ONTs through PON Downstream transmission, i.e., from OLT to ONT is usually TDM. Upstream traffic, i.e., from ONT to OLT is usually TDMA. PON system may be either symmetrical or asymmetrical.
Optical Network Termination (ONT)/ Optical Network Unit (ONU): An Optical Network Termination is a Customer Premises Equipment that provides user interfaces to the customer.
Physical Reach: The maximum physical distance for a transmission system. ‘Physical reach’ is the maximum physical distance between the ONU/ONT and the OLT. In GPON, two options for the physical reach: 10 km and 20 km.
Bit Rate: GPON aims at transmission speeds greater than or equal to 1.2 Gbps. Accordingly, GPON identifies two transmission speed combinations as follows −
· 1.2 Gbps up, 2.4 Gbps down
· 2.4 Gbps up, 2.4 Gbps down
The most important bit rate is 1.2 Gbps upstream and 2.4 Gbps downstream, constituting nearly all the deployed and planned deployment of the GPON systems.
Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Networks (GPON): A way of providing FTTH through a Gigabit Passive Optical Network, or GPON. GPON is a point-to-multipoint access network. Its main characteristic is the use of passive splitters in the fiber distribution network, enabling one single feeding fiber from the provider to serve multiple homes and small businesses. GPON has a downstream capacity of 2.488 Gb/s and an upstream capacity of 1.244 Gbp/s shared among users. Encryption is used to keep each user’s data secured and private from other users. Although there are other technologies that could provide fiber to the home, passive optical networks (PONs) like GPON are generally considered the strongest candidate for widespread deployments.
Ten-Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Network (XG-PON): The “X” in XG is based from the Roman Numeral X or 10. After GPON development, FSAAN and ITU-T started working on Next-Generation Passive Optical Network 1 (NG-PON1) with the following features:
· Low cost product
· Large Capacity
· Wide Coverage
· Backward compatibility
NG-PONs are divided into two phases by FSAN based on the current application demand and technology
· NG PON1 − NGPON1 is backward compatible with legacy GPON ODNs. NG-PON1 has an asymmetric 10G system with 10G downstream/download and 2.5G upstream/upload speed. This NG-PON1 is enhanced TDM PON system from GPON.
· NG PON2 – to be defined later
The main feature of NG-PON1 is to provide higher bandwidth than GPON as the same time. It should be backward compatible with the existing GPON network, which will reduce the operator’s cost. This NG-PON defined by the FSAN and ITU-T is known as XG-PON1.
FSAN and ITU-T has defined the following data rates for XG-PON1:
· Downstream Data Rate − 10G
· Upstream Data Rate − 2.5G
Upstream data rate of 2.5G is twice the upstream data rate of GPON. Apart from all elements of GPON, ODN (optical distribution network) can be reused in XG-PON1 network.
By adding only 10G downstream card in the existing GPON OLT, the GPON enhanced to XG-PON1.

Singtel & FTTH Research

After getting a better understanding of what FTTH is, I opted to review the Singtel site again to determine if I could discover any hardware insights from their equipment. My Google Search for specifically Singapore + Singtel + pfSense resulted in nothing of value and decided to navigate to the Singtel site and visit the FAQ and Support Pages.

Singtel Support Page

I decided to see if I could find any information from the Singtel Support Page and determine the model number of Optical Network Termination (ONT) (Terminals on their site). They had broken down the sections by equipment types. Those listed were Router Guides, Optical Network Terminals (ONT) LED Troubleshooting, and OPTICAL NETWORK Router (ONR) LED TROUBLESHOOTING. (Not sure what happened regarding CAPS LOCK for the final section on the site) The ONT Section caught my eye initially but ultimately did not display any of the equipment models nor imagery of the equipment aside of the front LEDs display. The only crumb of information I had was in the ONR section which clearly indicated the equipment Make and Model as “Huawei HG8224H ONR.”

Investing Extra Time with Google

Since the Singtel Support Page did not specifically provide models for their equipment I had to do manuals searches and find the information I was looking for through a combination of Google Images and external vendor support pages. I was eventually able to find the information below regarding the equipment.

Singtel ONT Models

· ALU ONT = Alcatel-Lucent (Nokia) G-240G-C (GPON ITU-T G.984.3, G.988)
· Ericsson ONT = Ericsson T063G (GPON ITU-T G.984. 1-5)
· ZTE ONT = ZTE ZXA10 F620G (GPON ITU-T G.984. 1-4, G.983.1, G.983.3)
What was also discovered by looking at all these models was the standards at which they operated for Gigabit Passive Optical Network (GPON). This made me pay more attention to the standards provided by the ITU and I wanted to review what was available from a high level review to determine if there would be any concerns regarding the type of optical module acquired. What consistently showed across all three devices was the ITU-T G.984.x standards which I then investigated further on the ITU site. I started with the first iteration at G.984.1 and reviewed the free PDF provided by their site. The table of contents then provided me the standards which to pay the most attention to.
https://preview.redd.it/bv960wgqstz41.png?width=1214&format=png&auto=webp&s=aa00a93cc420dbf8f181dbcfaa3b5b5c8acfc7df
Figure 1. Standards Information for ITU-T regarding Digital Line Systems
I then took to the individual Singtel ONT devices GPON Standards and the ITU Standards page again to capture all the information regarding G.980-G.989 that was relevant to those specific models for my investigation which I have highlighted in the following list below.

https://preview.redd.it/t190qsysstz41.png?width=1070&format=png&auto=webp&s=88e6875e7f1a3f5259b6c16d958776fdab140294
Figure 2. List of applicable ITU Standards for Singtel ONT equipment

Huawei Investigation

The Singtel site may have succeeding in getting me the best piece of information I had found so far but further investigation on the Huawei site was the next step. My Google Search for Huawei was able to provide me immediately with the Huawei Support page for the EchoLife HG8244H equipment but any information on the site was behind a paywall. I attempted to access the information via SMS Verification but did not work from my mobile phone. Once that effort resulted in no additional access to the support materials, I moved on to other Google Search results.

Manuals Lib – The Ultimate Manuals Library

Once again, the various pages and searches I was running simultaneously led me to this discovery and sadly how is what I cannot recall. The manual for the “EchoLife” device and its various iterations was now available to me, and more specifically the Physical Specifications and Protocols and Standards.

Investigating the Optical Options

Based upon the information from the EchoLife equipment manual, the specifications for the Protocols and Standards supported the additional research on the Singtel ONT equipment and would grant the ability to finally start a Google Search that would help shopping for a fiber transceiver.
This topic provides the protocols and standards which the ports of the ONT comply with.
· GPON: ITU-T G.984
· VoIP: H.248, SIP, G.711A/u, G.729a/b, and T.38
· Multicast: IGMPv2, IGMPv3, and IGMP snooping
· Routing: NAT, NAPT, and ALG
· Ethernet: IEEE 802.3ab
· USB: USB 1.1/USB 2.0
· Wi-Fi: IEEE 802.11n
Table 1. Protocols and Standards for the EchoLife ONR Model provided by Singtel.
A simple Google Search brings you conveniently to the standards page with the first hit! Once on the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) site, I modified the URL to take me to the various standards to read more into each highlighted in Figures 1 & 2.

What type of Transceiver?

Now that there was a multitude of devices that had similar specifications in their manuals, the next step was to start doing a Google Search that asked the question, “What type of fiber module is required for fiber internet GPON?” One of the results that captured my attention was the question of “SFPs: B+ and C+ - What’s the Difference.” The SFP B+ specification was within one of the Singtel ONT devices’ manual. (The T063G Network Interface description to be exact)

Conclusion and Request for Support

This is where my efforts have come to a head and I am coming to a much larger community for input and advice. I hope that with what is shared I can make this into a post which many others can benefit from as a starting point – which will then be supplemented with a much more involved “How-To” including QoS, VLAN, configuration, some before and after pictures, etc.

The Intended End-State

· Measure twice, cut once. I have done all this research with the intent to have the equipment be suitable for the near and far future. (10Gbit fiber / copper internet)
o Am I correct for believing XG-PON / NG-PON1 are to be compatible with GPON due to the ITU standard indicating backwards compatibility?
· Affordability / Compatibility. Since this device will be a FreeBSD – pfSense build, the drivers for any transceiver would need to be compatible with this OS and server chassis
· Recommendation(s) for transceivers between SuperMicro Server and 10gbit switch?
submitted by Chivo-Martillo to PFSENSE [link] [comments]

List of Top gaming laptops of 2020

UPDATED APRIL 28, 2020
See list as you scroll downwards
Laptop buying guide 2020
List of best gaming laptops for UK users
UNDER $2500 to 3000
Laptop Processor RAM GPU Storage Size & Res Battery Life weight
MSI GS66 Stealth Intel Core i9-10980HK 16 GB RAM Nvidia GeForce RTX 2080 Max-Q 1TB NVMe SSD 15. 6" FHD, Anti-Glare Wide View Angle 300Hz 3ms - 7.7 lbs
Pros:
  • Wonderful gpu performance which is top of the line.
  • 300Hz display.
  • new and powerful i7 10th gen processor.
Laptop Processor RAM GPU Storage Size & Res Battery Life(Looped Video Test) weight
Razer Blade 15 Gaming Laptop 2020 Intel Core i7-10750H 16 GB RAM Nvidia GeForce RTX 2070 Max-Q 256GB or 512GB M.2 NVMe PCIe SSD 144Hz FHD Matte or OLED 4K - 2.84 lbs
Pros:
  • Latest and powerful 10th gen processor
  • Slim and light design
  • Pleasing aesthetics
  • Upgradeable SSD, RAM, and WLAN
  • Enthusiast-level GPU performance
  • RGB Chroma backlighting
  • Fast game performance
  • High refresh display
  • Robust build quality
Cons:
  • Razer Synapse still requires an Internet connection to use
  • Lacks fingerprint reader, SD reader, or RJ-45
Laptop Processor RAM GPU Storage Size & Res Battery Life(Video Rundown Test) Weight
MSI GE75 Raider-283 17.3" Gaming Laptop Intel Core i7-10750H 64 GB RAM NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2070 8GB GDDR6 2TB NVMe Solid State Drive + 2TB 5400rpm Hard Disk Drive 17.3" Thin Bezel Full HD IPS-Level 240Hz 3ms Display (1920 x 1080) 1:48 hours 5.75 lbs
Special Features:
  • powerful cpu and gpu performance worth the price
  • Good port selection.
  • Loud speakers.
  • Ample 1080p gaming performance, as tested.
  • Refreshed design with thin-bezel display
Cons:
  • short battery life.
  • Some keyboard-layout quirks.
  • Poor webcam.
Laptop Processor RAM GPU Storage Size & Res Battery Life(Idle/NBC WiFi Websurfing Battery Test 1.3/Loading) Weight
Acer Predator Triton 500 Intel Core i7-9750H 32 GB Nvidia RTX 2080 Max-Q 1TB PCIe NVMe SSD 5.6" Full HD 144Hz 3ms G-Sync IPS Display 5:35/3:10/1:21 hours 4.41 pounds
Acer’s Predator Triton 500 is a greatly suited gaming laptop which anyone would want to own. It's thin and light for its category, and its Nvidia GeForce RTX 2080 Max Q GPU will aid you omit the mild deficiencies of its 9th-gen Core i7 CPU.
The Acer Predator Triton 500, for being such a thin and light gaming laptop, is kind of a monster laptop. This laptop consist of a powerful hardware and lasts interestingly long without charge, making it suitable for any gamer that needs to travel a lot.
We do have some issues with the design, namely the awkward keyboard layout and flimsy screen lid, but they don’t hold the Acer Predator Triton 500 back from being worth your time and money.
Special Features:
  • Slim, portable design
  • Powerful GPU which can run the latest games at high settings.
  • Very Fast CPU for high graphic intensive games.
  • Comfortable keyboard
  • Seriously-fast file transfer speeds
  • compact case
  • metal chassis
  • Thunderbolt 3
  • slim bezels
  • G-Sync
Cons:
  • Awkward boot sound (can be deactivated in the BIOS)
  • Runs hot even with the fans moving full speed
  • common look
  • short battery life
  • not easily up-gradable
Laptop Processor RAM GPU Storage Size & Res Battery Life(Video rundown test weight
Gigabyte aero 17 Intel Core i7-10750H 32 GB RAM NVIDIA GeForce RTX2070 Super Max-Q M.2 PCIe 512GB SSD 17. 3" 3mm ultra-thin bezel NVIDIA GeForce RTX2080 Super Max-Q GDDR6 8GB Supports NVIDIA Optimus technology - Hours
Pros:
  • Spectacular AMOLED screen
  • great CPU and GPU power
  • Bling-tastic RGB backlit keyboard
  • packed with various ports
UNDER $2000 to 2500
Laptop Processor RAM GPU Storage Size & Res Battery Life weight
ROG Zephyrus S Ultra Slim Gaming Laptop Intel Core i7-9750H 16 GB RAM Nvidia GeForce RTX 2080 8GB 1TB PCIe NVMe Hyper drive SSD 15.6” 240Hz 3ms HDR IPS-Type full HD (1920x1080) Display - 4.63 lbs
Pros:
  • Powerful 9th gen processor
  • Best gpu to date which can run games smoothly
  • Lightweight
  • nice build quality and design
  • Relatively cool core temperatures when gaming
  • High quality 240 Hz/3 ms IPS display
  • Four-zone RGB lighting
  • durable hinges
Cons:
  • Only 1x storage bay and 1x SODIMM slot
  • doesn't have Thunderbolt 3 or SD card reader
  • little battery
  • Short runtimes
  • No G-Sync or 4K UHD choices
Laptop Processor RAM GPU Storage Size & Res Battery Life(idle/NBC WiFi Websurfing Battery Test 1.3/load) Weight
Razer Blade 15 Intel Core i7-9750H 16 GB RAM NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2080 Max-Q 1TB HDD+128GB SSD 15.6" FHD 240Hz matte display 15:53/6:33/1:42 hours(Notebookcheck.com) 4.74 lbs
The main purpose of having one of the newest Blade 15 over previous models is for its high frame 240 Hz display. The move from Wi-Fi 5 to Wi-Fi 6 or Intel 8th gen Core i7 to 9th gen Core i7 is slight in difference to from a 60 Hz display to a 240 Hz display. The smoothness, responsiveness, and luxuriousness of the 4x faster refresh rate are instantly tangible all-round.
Pros:
  • color accurate display without end-user calibration
  • quieter than many GeForce RTX gaming laptops
  • wonderful 240 Hz refresh rate
  • Wi-Fi 6 standard on Advanced Model
  • upgradeable RAM up to 64 GB
  • rigid ultra-thin design
  • good battery life
  • per-key RGB lighting
  • Thunderbolt 3
Cons:
  • PWM consist of a very low brightness levels
  • benefits over a 144 Hz panel are not that great
  • palm rests could be a little cooler
  • consist of one internal storage slot
  • large fingerprint magnet
  • no SD card reader
  • no G-Sync
Laptop Processor RAM GPU Storage Size & Res Battery Life(Looped Video Test) weight
Razer Blade Pro 17 Gaming Laptop 2019 Intel Core i7-9750H 16 GB RAM NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2080 Max-Q 512GB SSD 17.3" FHD 144Hz matte display 4:44 Hours(techradar) 2.84 lbs
Razer’s laptop provides a brief and fascinating look towards the future of portable computing. Hardcore gamers, there are not so often times when games look more appealing than ever before on this laptop. The Razer Blade Pro 17 is a special gaming laptop well worth buying. With the elegant 4K display to the improved design, there's a lot to love here. All features excluding for the portability, simply.
Pros:
  • Thunderbolt 3, 2.5 Gbit Ethernet
  • Above-average RTX 2080 Max-Q performance
  • Great 9th gen i7 performance
  • slimmer, more of the latest design
  • Improved cooling system
  • Wi-Fi 6
Cons:
  • 9th gen processor is not any faster than the 8th gen processor
  • Only one (1080p / 144Hz) display option
  • 512GB SSD is pretty cramped for a gaming rig
  • No 4K model
Laptop Processor RAM GPU Storage Size & Res Battery Life(Video Rundown Test) Weight
Asus ROG Zephyrus S GX701 Intel Core i7-9750H 32 GB Nvidia GeForce GTX 2070 2TB NVMe SSD 17.3" FHD 240Hz 3ms G-SYNC Display 4.5 Hours 5.95 pounds
The Asus ROG Zephyrus S GX701 is one of the greatest gaming laptops ever created. Comprises of a spectacular performance and eye catching thin and light design. Also has the latest 9th gen i7 processor and the new RTX 20geseries gpu. Its gpu is one of the most powerful to date.
If you want the outright best gaming laptop available today then the GX701 is the system for you. It provides powerful gaming performance in a spectacular well put together, special package that aside from a few slight faults like its keyboard, no network port and surprisingly designed and set volume wheel. When buying a GX701 and you are currently looking to upgrade your portable PC gaming system, then the Asus ROG Zephyrus S GX701 really is one of the best choice.
Pros:
  • Extremely fast CPU performance.
  • Awesome design.
  • Wonderful 17-inch screen.
  • Powerful GPU which can run the latest games at high settings.
  • users can choose between G-Sync and Optimus
  • high-quality case
  • RGB lighting
  • slim
  • external webcam
  • practical tools
  • 240 Hz panel
  • slim bezels
  • great cooling system
Cons:
  • The touchpad is awkwardly shifted off to the right side
  • not practical when not placed on a desk
  • Short battery life
  • No LAN port
Laptop Processor RAM GPU Storage Size & Res Battery Life(Video Rundown Test) Weight
MSI GS75 Stealth Intel Core i7-10750H 32 GB NVIDIA GeForce RTX2070 Super Max-Q 8G GDDR6 512GB NVMe SSD 17.3" FHD (1920x1080) 300Hz 3ms IPS-Level - Hours 8.64 pounds
Pros:
  • thin screen bezel
  • Powerful GPU which can run the latest games at high settings.
  • Very Fast CPU for high graphic intensive games.
  • 300 fps gaming performance
  • Ports include USB Type-C with Thunderbolt 3
Cons:
  • Heavy
Laptop Processor RAM GPU Storage Size & Res Battery Life(on idle/NBC WiFi Websurfing/Loading) Weight
Asus Zephyrus GX502GW Intel Core i7-9750H 16 GB Nvidia GeForce RTX 2070 8GB GDDR6 1TB PCIe Hyper Drive SSD 240Hz 15.6” Full HD (1920x1080) IPS Type Pantone validated Display 5:53/3:40/1(notebookcheck, 2020) Hours 4.3 pounds
Pros:
  • compact & stylish design
  • colour-accurate display
  • 240 Hz refresh rate
  • Great gpu and cpu performance
  • G-Sync included
  • compact & stylish design
  • colour-precise display
  • convenient software
  • decent performance
  • light in weight for a 15.6-inch gaming laptop
  • RGB backlit keyboard
Cons:
  • Lacks Thunderbolt 3
  • Partially soldered RAM
  • Mediocre battery life
  • Not so loud speakers
  • Noisy, even in 'silent' mode
Laptop Processor RAM GPU Storage Size & Res Battery Life(Video rundown test weight
Gigabyte aero 15 Intel Core i7-10750H 16 GB RAM NVIDIA GeForce RTX2070 Super Max-Q M.2 PCIe 512GB SSD 144Hz FHD 1920x1080 IGZO anti-glare Display LCD 8 Hours 4.4 lbs
Pros:
  • Spectacular AMOLED screen
  • great CPU and GPU power
  • Bling-tastic RGB backlit keyboard
  • packed with various ports
UNDER $1500 to 2000
Laptop Processor RAM GPU Storage Size & Res Battery Life(Video Rundown Test) Weight
Asus ROG Strix Scar III (2019) Gaming Laptop Intel Core i7-9750H 16 GB RAM NVidia GeForce RTX 2070 8GB 512GB PCIE NVME SSD 240Hz 15.6” 1920x1080 IPS Type Display 4 hours 5.6 lbs
Pros:
  • Wonderful gpu and cpu performance including games, on Performance/Turbo
  • sturdy build quality and user-friendly materials
  • fast 240Hz IPS screen, but not very bright
  • room for modifications and overclocking, simple to upgrade
  • both the components and frame stays cool with gaming
  • punchy and great speakers volume
  • well priced
Laptop Processor RAM GPU Storage Size & Res Battery Life(Web browsing) Weight
Eluktronics MAX-17 Slim & Ultra Light Notebook Intel Core i7-9750H 32 GB Nvidia GeForce RTX 2070 Max-p 1TB PCIe NVMe SSD 17.3" Full HD (1920 x 1080) LED-backlit IPS 144Hz Display 7 to 8 Hours 4.71 pounds
Pros:
  • max p graphics which is better than max q
  • Worth the price to performance ratio
  • Lightweight
  • Slim design
Laptop Processor RAM GPU Storage Size & Res Battery Life(Video Rundown Test) Weight
Eluktronics MAG-15 Slim & Ultra Light Intel Core i7-9750H 32 GB RAM NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2070 Max-Q 1TB PCIe NVMe SSD 15.6" Full HD (1920 x 1080) LED-backlit IPS 144Hz Display - hours 4.15 lbs
Special Features:
  • Keep comparatively cool when gaming.
  • price to performance ratio.
Laptop Processor RAM GPU Storage Size & Res Battery Life(Video Rundown Test) Weight
ASUS ROG Zephyrus S Ultra Slim Gaming Laptop Intel Core i7-9750H Hex-Core 16 GB RAM NVidia GeForce RTX 2070 8GB max q 512GB PCIE NVME SSD 15. 6” 144Hz 3ms IPS-Type full HD (1920x1080) Display 4 hours 4 lbs
The Asus ROG Zephyrus S consist of a strong performance, a wonderful display and impressive audio system, all in a extremely small chassis. Consist of a cpu and gpu which outclass it's previous predecessor.Its high-end CPU and GPU enable it to easily power through every triple-A game released over the last couple of years at high to maximum settings.Its low response times, G-Sync support and 144 Hz refresh rate makes games look extremely smooth.
Pros:
  • Matte IPS display
  • 144-Hz panel
  • NVMe SSD
  • Capability of switching between dedicated and integrated GPU
  • light and thin design
  • Powerful GPU which can run the latest games at high settings.
  • Very Fast CPU for high graphic intensive games.
  • RGB backlit keyboard
  • Nvidia Optimus or G-Sync
Cons:
  • Max. 24 GB of RAM
  • Limited upgradability
  • Poor battery life
  • No current graphic drivers
Laptop Processor RAM GPU Storage Size & Res Battery Life(Continuous web surfing over Wi-Fi at 150 nits.) Weight
ROG Zephyrus M Thin and Portable Gaming Laptop Intel Core i7-9750H 16 GB RAM NVidia GeForce RTX 2070 Max-q 1TB PCIe SSD 240Hz 15.6” 1920x1080 IPS Type Display 3 hours 4.39 lbs
Pros:
  • Wonderful gpu and cpu performance including games
  • fast 240Hz IPS screen, but not very bright
  • portability
  • great build quality
  • both the components and frame stays cool with gaming
  • punchy and great speakers volume
  • well priced
  • Slim and Light
Laptop Processor RAM GPU Storage Size & Res Battery Life weight
ASUS TUF 506 Gaming laptop AMD Ryzen 7 4800H 16 GB RAM NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2060 6GB GDDR6 1TB NVMe Solid State Drive 15.6" Full HD IPS-Level 144Hz Anti-Glare Wideview Display (1920 x 1080) - 5.07 lbs
Pros:
  • new and powerful ryzen 7 4800H processor
  • wonderful gpu performance for the price.
  • great amount of RAM
  • 144Hz display
UNDER $1000 to 1500
Laptop Processor RAM GPU Storage Size & Res Battery Life(Video rundown test weight
MSI GP65 Intel Core i7-10750H 32 GB RAM NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2070 512GB NVMe SSD 15.6" Thin Bezel FHD IPS-Level 144Hz 3ms 100%sRGB 72%NTSC - Hours 5.14 lbs
Pros:
  • New and powerful 10th gen i7 processor
  • powerful gpu
Laptop Processor RAM GPU Storage Size & Res Battery Life(Video rundown test weight
MSI GP65 Intel Core i7-10750H 16 GB RAM NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2060 512GB NVMe SSD 15.6" Thin Bezel FHD IPS-Level 144Hz 3ms 100%sRGB 72%NTSC - Hours 5.14 lbs
Pros:
  • New and powerful 10th gen i7 processor
  • powerful gpu
Laptop Processor RAM GPU Storage Size & Res Battery Life(Continuous web surfing over Wi-Fi at 150 nits.) Weight
ROG Zephyrus g14 Gaming Laptop AMD Ryzen 9 4900HS 16 GB RAM NVidia GeForce RTX 2060 1TB PCIe NVMe SSD 14” PANTONE Validated IPS-Type Full HD (1920x1080) display 11:30 hours 3.53 lb lbs
Pros:
  • high performing CPU performance from Ryzen 9 4900HS which is the latest cpu.
  • G14 chassis is slim, lightweight and very compact.
  • long battery life.
Cons:
  • No webcam
  • 16:9 aspect ratio is cumbersome for productivity
  • No wired Ethernet
  • No Thunderbolt 3 connection
  • CPU gets hot
Laptop Processor RAM GPU Storage Size & Res Battery Life(Video Rundown Test) Weight
Acer Helios 300 Intel Core i7-9750H 6-Core 16 GB NVIDIA RTX 1660ti 6 GB 512GB PCIe NVMe SSD 15.6" Full HD 144Hz 3ms IPS Display 5 Hours 5.07 pounds
One of the most bought gaming laptops is the Helios 300. Due to its standard over the years as packing great specifications which delivers a wonderful performance for it's price.
Pros:
  • sturdy build quality
  • compact, but still fairly heavy
  • good 144 Hz matte screen
  • excellent performance once tweaked
  • capable thermal implementation, but the fans need to spin fast and loudly in order to keep the components at bay
  • easy to upgrade
  • Powerful GPU which can run the latest games at high settings.
  • Very Fast CPU for high graphic intensive games.
Cons:
  • Sound system is lower than expectation
  • Only one free 2.5-inch slot available
  • Poorly designed cooling system
  • Only one USB-A 3.0 connector
  • SSD is SATA and no HDD installed
  • No USB-C Gen 2 or Thunderbolt support
Affiliate Disclosure: This post consist Amazon Affiliate links. ITMAN2000 is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.
Laptop Processor RAM GPU Storage Size & Res Battery Life weight
ASUS Zephyrus G15 Gaming Laptop AMD Ryzen 7 4800H 16 GB RAM NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1660Ti 6GB 1TB PCIe NVMe M 2 SSD 15.6" Full HD IPS-Level 144Hz Anti-Glare Wide view Display - 4.85 lbs
Pros:
  • new and powerful ryzen 7 4800H processor
  • wonderful gpu performance for the price.
  • great amount of RAM
  • 144Hz display
  • slim design
  • lightweight
  • nicely build
Laptop Processor RAM GPU Storage Size & Res Battery Life(Video Playback) Weight
Asus TUF GAMING A17 AMD Ryzen 7 4800H 16 GB NVIDIA RTX 1660ti 6 GB 1 TB PCIe SSD 17.3" FHD 120Hz IPS-Level 12 Hours 5.73 pounds
Pros:
  • new and powerful ryzen 7 4800H processor
  • wonderful gpu performance for the price.
Laptop Processor RAM GPU Storage Size & Res Battery Life(Video Playback) Weight
Asus TUF GAMING A15 AMD Ryzen 7 4800H 16 GB NVIDIA RTX 1660ti 6 GB 512GB PCIe NVMe SSD 15.6" IPS-Level Full HD (1920x1080) 144Hz Anti-Glare Display 12 Hours 5.1 pounds
Pros:
  • latest and powerful ryzen 7 processor which really fast.
  • decent gpu performance worthy of running modern games smoothly.
UNDER $800 to $1000
Laptop Processor RAM GPU Storage Size & Res Battery Life(Idle (without WLAN, min brightness), NBC WiFi Websurfing Battery Test 1.3,Load (maximum brightness) ) Weight
MSI GF63 Intel Core i5-9300H 8 GB RAM NVIDIA GeForce RTX2060 6G GDDR6 512GB NVMe SSD 15 6" FHD (1920*1080) IPS-Level 120Hz Thin Bezel 8:27/4:22/1:12 hours 7.6 lbs
Pros:
  • great price-to-performance ratio
  • light and compact casing
  • moderate temperatures
Cons:
  • display with low response times and brightness
  • meagre port selection
  • relatively loud on idle
Laptop Processor RAM GPU Storage Size & Res Battery Life(Video playback) Weight
Dell G3 3590 Intel Core i5-9300H 8 GB RAM NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1660 Ti w/ Max-Q Design 6GB 512GB M.2 PCIe NVMe Solid State Drive 15.6" 1920x1080 Anti-glare LED Backlit FHD Display 6 hours 5.16 lbs
Pros:
  • affordable price
  • Good performance, given the hardware
  • Comfy keyboard
  • wonderful upgradeability
  • SD card reader
UNDER $800
Laptop Processor RAM GPU Storage Size & Res Battery Life(Normal use) weight
ASUS TUF (2019) Gaming Laptop AMD Ryzen 7 R7-3750H 16 GB RAM Nvidia GeForce GTX 1660 Ti 256GB PCIe NVMe SSD + 1TB HDD 15.6” full HD (1920x1080) 120Hz IPS type display 4 to 5 4.85 lbs
Pros:
  • wonderful gpu performance which is worth the price
  • wonderful frame rate for the price
  • powerful cpu performance
  • nice design
  • express wireless speed
Laptop Processor RAM GPU Storage Size & Res Battery Life(Video Rundown Test) Weight
Acer Nitro 5 Gaming Laptop Intel Core i5-9300H 8 GB RAM NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1650 with 8 GB of dedicated GDDR5 VRAM 1TB HDD+128GB SSD 15.6” Full HD 1920 x 1080 display 8 hours 5.51 lbs
The Acer Nitro 5 is a solid gaming laptop for casual gamers who want middle-tier performance at an entry-level cost. This laptop plastic built is somewhat bulky, but the 9th Gen Core i5 processor and Nvidia GTX 1650 GPU outshines its design.
Pros:
  • Long battery life
  • Decent build
  • cool palm rest even under sustained load
  • Slim bezels display
  • Full HD IPS display
  • Great performance of cpu and gpu to price ratio.
  • Very fast processor suitable for the most demanding tasks.
  • Medium graphics card, suitable for the latest 3D games at medium settings.
Laptop Processor RAM GPU Storage Size & Res Battery Life Weight
Acer Nitro 7 Gaming Laptop Intel Core i7-9750H 8 GB RAM NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1650 with 4 GB of dedicated GDDR5 VRAM 256GB PCIe NVMe SSD 15.6" Full HD (1920 x 1080) Widescreen LED-backlit IPS display 8 hours 7.5 lbs
The Nitro 7 display screen looks very impressive, despite being an entry-level display. But viewing angles are reasonably extensive, color reproduction is shockingly solid, and the Nitro 7 simply clears the 250-nit floor utilized for the battery trial.
Pros:
  • Stylish looks
  • Supports up to three storage drives.
  • productive fans for quiet cooling.
  • vivid 144Hz screen.
  • great battery life.
Laptop Processor RAM GPU Storage Size & Res Battery Life(Idle (without WLAN, min brightness), NBC WiFi Websurfing Battery Test 1.3,Load (maximum brightness) ) Weight
MSI GF63 Intel Core i5-9300H 8 GB RAM NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1650 [Max-Q] 256GB NVMe SSD 15 6" FHD (1920*1080) IPS-Level 60Hz 45%NTSC Thin Bezel 8:27/4:22/1:12 hours 7.6 lbs
Pros:
  • great price-to-performance ratio
  • light and compact casing
  • moderate temperatures
Cons:
  • display with low response times and brightness
  • meagre port selection
  • relatively loud on idle
Other interesting gaming laptops
HELLO FELLOW REDDITORS, I KNOW THIS INFORMATION IS NOT RELATED TO GAMING LAPTOPS BUT SEEING THE SITUATION THAT IS TAKING PLACE WORLDWIDE. EVERY INDIVIDUAL LIFE IS IMPORTANT AND MY CONDOLENSES TO ALL WHO HAD DIED TO THE DEADLY COVID 19 VIRUS AND MY HOPES FOR RECOVERY FOR THOSE WHO CONTRACT THE VIRUS. PLEASE NOTE THE LINKTO PROTECT YOURSELF AGAINST THE VIRUS AND SHARE.
submitted by ITman2000 to GamingLaptops [link] [comments]

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