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[Diplomacy] CEMAC - Congo-Kinshasa Negotiations 2021

CEMAC - Congo-Kinshasa Negotiations 2021

Congo-Kinshasa has decided to actively pursue integration into the CEMAC organization. As a subsidiary of ECCAS, CEMAC has seen far greater levels of economic integration and development than the broader organization - primarily due to Angolan-Congolese tensions. However, times have changed. The UDSP and President Tshisikedi would like to open a formal negotiation session with CEMAC and create a 2 year pathway to membership for the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Congo-Kinshasa is willing to offer the following timeline agreement to CEMAC for a 2 year long, high-intensity integration session, culminating in full membership. The largest aspect of these negotiations will be the CFA Franc, and necessary reform to both it and Congo-Kinshasa’s financial system. Should the following agreement pass, we believe these issues will be solved.
CEMAC - Democratic Republic of the Congo Ascension Agreement
  • With guidance from CEMAC, the DRC agrees to reform its financial and banking regulations in line with CEMAC regulations.
  • The DRC agrees to reform its judicial system in accordance with CEMAC legislation.
  • The DRC agrees to send representatives to every operating CEMAC body, and integrate the representative positions as appropriate per CEMAC rules.
  • CEMAC agrees to de-peg the CFA Franc from the Euro and float the currency on international forex markets
  • CEMAC agrees to implement a zero-tarrif Internal Free Trade Agreement, in line with the bloc’s next step towards economic integration
We hope that this agreement is implemented in time for DRC membership in CEMAC by 2023.
submitted by deusos to Geosim [link] [comments]

My timeline of 20 years of trading (good and bad) to profitability

Tips for picking mentors
This is what works for me, and what I would tell my younger self. Don't let anyone tell you who's good or not, and who's helpful or not. Always start with an open mind. I follow Ferrari flashing you tube traders and dry professorial educators who use pen and paper. All that matters is that they help you make money.
I am 41.
16 (1995): Started designing web pages for friends and family and local businesses.
18 (1997): Opened my first account with $10k on parents advise but had little interest. Started a pro-gaming league hosting tournaments around the country for Starcraft.
20: (1999) Had an established client based now (LSU Tigers website and first online auction service, Texas Roadhouse, et al)
Saved $25k now from working. Decided to pay taxes for the first time. Suddenly became very conservative (fiscally) and wanted to know how to make back the money the Government just stole from me (preferably directly from them).
  1. (2001) Became very ill and had to drop out of college and quit my businesses. I slowly lost every friend and contact I had made since childhood.
  2. Spent the last 15 years Warren-Buffetting (buying things I know that seem affordable) my way up and down from 5$k - $35k. I was good enough to be able to take money out to live and had a little family money (from a portion of a family insurance company I provided services for) that I lived comfortably. I blew up a few times a long the way and didn't know what a candlestick was.
  3. Went into liver failure and ICU at Mayo Clinic. Got out a year later weighing 90 pounds.
39-41. Started turning a corner. I started reading Daytrading and met an ex-gambler (gone now) who was posting occasional watch lists of gappers and ran a discord chatroom calling breakout ORB5 setups. I noticed he picked a lot of winners and did not want to copy him but wanted to know HOW he picked them. I joined his room. I think he had started it the day before because there were like 3 of us. He was offering instruction on how to scan for break out long and short possibilies on FinViz. (Long https://bit.ly/2ZV8LQK: Short: https://bit.ly/2O6oo2B )
I was literally like.. "whats a vwap". He was so patient with me and we became friends. He moved on to bigger goals since then but we are still in touch. I was making nearly $2k a day following his alerts. He was a good mentor (luckily) because he never told me entries or exits. he would tell me his thoughts but never specifics - that was up to me. I learned a great deal from him, but once he left I could not pick the winners like he could. I could trade stocks but I could not pick stocks. I wanted to find winners on my own. I ended up paying him about $90 for a an hour "lesson" after we quite some time but I was already profitable and already knew everything he went over but I wanted to support him and be his first paid endoresement. He was so good at picking winners and losers that he was actually offered a lucritive private job and he accepted. He was the first person who changed my trading life.
(I did pay for a couple "indicators and services" and that I ..learned a lot from the lesson in stupidity they gave me but will not mention them by name. I'm sure my timing on things is a little off on details. When I say I bought an "indicator" this means a specific tool used to do something that I cannot do myself or to make up for a weakness I have (counting waves). Not a "green arrow buy and green arrow to sell" indicator.)
I literally googled "how to stop having trades turn against you" and watched a video I would later learn was on Stochstic Divergences from someone named Barry Burns. I researched him and watched about a hundred of his videos and was fascinated. I read one concerning review but then read that the person never took his courses and was just made because he would not provide financial statements as proof he was a profitable trader. (he does not give trade alerts, he's just an instructor so he never does this). I took a webinar on the weekend. He does one weekly at least. He asked for 250 people max and a thousand showed up. He had a chatbox and answered my question personally so after that I felt confident enough to pay him for course. I emailed him and he responded personally with a course outline. I took a beginner course and was dying to learn more. He just happened to have a special for basically every course he's ever done for half the cost. I decided this was a way to trade that spoke to my strengths and I wanted to try to master it so I did it all. Beginner to masterclass, trends, scalps, reversals, fib, cycles, waves, crosses, sector research, futures, options, stocks, forex, minute charts to yearly, tick , heikin ashi, divergences.. it went on and on and I ate it up with a spoon. At the same time I started reading books. We correspond through emails still and sometime's hes busy. I don't know if he even knows who I am but he was the second person who changed my trading life.
I knew a lot but I was losing (often more) money. I was a "doctor" (maybe an high-school nurse) who had read a book on surgery but never done it and said "sure.. I can transplant a heart!"
Rather than focus on my teachings and understanding what I was learning, I got impatient and moved on too quickly. Anything I mention I did find helpful but not always at the time that I found it. I should have mastered each item then added to my already profitable program. I had neither of those things. The course I took from Barry Burns had some custom indicators for some platforms, but none I used. They were not "premium indicators" so to speak of little buy now arrows, but simply auto labeling of waves and cycles, auto drawing of some divergences etc. He teaches counting different from anyone else I've seen so standard Elliot wave theory did not work. I was frustrated. I was wondering if I made a mistake learning something differently than other people. (in the end it was irrelevant. It was an understanding of concepts and theory that mattered. The means by which you learned it is far less important. I would definitely take his courses again as my entry into trading if I did it again)
I knew how to trade I did not know what or when to trade them. I found a man named Robert Payne. He writes custom indicators for thinkorswim, many of which are are only available on other platforms. I had a lot of programming experience so I bought a couple of things from him and started studying his code. He was amazing! His code is top quality and his indicators actually were very good. And they did start helping me find a few setups. But they were expensive and nothing lasted. I would buy a Wolfe Wave indicator and learn to trade it but not understand what it was doing. We e-mailed back and fourth for a little while as he was teaching me how to use his stuff. He introduced me to a number of people (who often were behind the original indicators he was trying to replicate) and for that I am most grateful to him. The first and most influential to me later was Scott Carney.
Scott runs HarmonicTrader.com. He sells a very reasonable (I think its like 20 bucks a month when he does a sale) where you get a morning trade meeting about the market and futures commodities harmonics that are setting up, a harmonic pattern indicator for almost any platform (some are far better than others)) and books and videos all focused on this one thing he has dedicated his life to.
I went to culinary school for a year. My first Chef instructor told our class on day one: "always source from people who specialize in one thing". On dozens of trips to Mexico in my youth we would drive ATC's up dirt roads to these small shacks. The last house on the left was Lupe and she always had a baby in one arm and a ladle in the other where she pour tortilla batter on a griddle press. I doubt it was clean, everything was covered in dirt from the windy sandy landscape - but they were the best damn tortilla's in the world.
Scott Carney is my chubby little Mexican goddess of trading Harmonic patterns and the third person who changed my trading life. (and he would not be happy if I called him that)
At this point I was struggling to find tradable stocks still. I started leaving all my chatrooms and twitter groups and message boards. I limit my twitter to people who trade better than me or up-my-game in some way. I try not to "mingle" with people of my skill level too much. I want to be challenged constantly.
I met a few more mentors but no more paid programs. Instead I pay for services like good websites and platforms that help me make my own decisions. I started associating and following expert technicians and I learn from every day and week in videos charts and tweets.
Now when I see this:
https://chrt.biz/LOVE/12425esmrhl/chart/
This is what I see in my head.
https://chrt.biz/LOVE/12425equ72v/chart/
and when I see this
https://chrt.biz/CCH/12425esm49g/chart/
I see this
https://chrt.biz/CCH/12425eqxxj4
And when I have nothing to trade, I can write my own scan and find my own winner and trade it without outside help.
There was no short cut. I put hours and hours and hour and hours in charting a hundred charts a day. Repetition = learning. Just make sure you are learning something you won't regret.
submitted by UncleRyan79 to UncleRyanAZ [link] [comments]

Some tips for Choosing a Mentor

This is what works for me, and what I would tell my younger self. Don't let anyone tell you who's good or not, and who's helpful or not. Always start with an open mind. I follow Ferrari flashing you tube traders and dry professorial educators who use pen and paper. All that matters is that they help you make money.
Top portion are tips. I posted a long outline below of my timeline (shorter version of my first post) and good and bad decisions I made. I'm not always sure what information helps people. I enjoyed posts like this while I was learning.
Tips

My Timeline
  1. Saved $25k from self employment. Decided to pay taxes for the first time. Suddenly became very conservative (fiscally) and wanted to know how to make back the money the Government just took from me (preferably directly from them).
  2. (2001) Became very ill and had to drop out of college and quit my work.
  3. Spent the next 15 years Warren-Buffetting (buying things I know that seem affordable) my way up and down. I was good enough to be able to take money out to live comfortably. I blew up a few times a long the way and didn't know what a candlestick was.
  4. 3-4 years in a health crisis
38-40. Started turning a corner. I started reading Daytrading and met an ex-gambler (gone now) who was posting occasional watch lists of gappers and ran a discord chatroom calling breakout ORB5 setups. I noticed he picked a lot of winners and did not want to copy him but wanted to know HOW he picked them. I joined his room. I think he had started it the day before because there were like 3 of us. He was offering instruction on how to scan for break out long and short possibilies on FinViz. (Long https://bit.ly/2ZV8LQK: Short: https://bit.ly/2O6oo2B )
I was literally like.. "whats a vwap". He was so patient with me and we became friends. He moved on to bigger goals since then but we are still in touch. I was making nearly $2k a day following his alerts. He was a good mentor (luckily) because he never told me entries or exits. he would tell me his thoughts but never specifics - that was up to me. I learned a great deal from him, but once he left I could not pick the winners like he could. I could trade stocks but I could not pick stocks. I wanted to find winners on my own. I ended up paying him about $90 for a an hour "lesson" after we quite some time but I was already profitable and already knew everything he went over but I wanted to support him and be his first paid endoresement. He was so good at picking winners and losers that he was actually offered a lucritive private job and he accepted. He was the first person who changed my trading life.
(I did pay for a couple "indicators and services" and that I ..learned a lot from the lesson in stupidity they gave me but will not mention them by name. I'm sure my timing on things is a little off on details. When I say I bought an "indicator" this means a specific tool used to do something that I cannot do myself or to make up for a weakness I have (counting waves). Not a "green arrow buy and green arrow to sell" indicator.)
I literally googled "how to stop having trades turn against you" and watched a video I would later learn was on Stochstic Divergences from someone named Barry Burns. I researched him and watched about a hundred of his videos and was fascinated. I read one concerning review but then read that the person never took his courses and was just made because he would not provide financial statements as proof he was a profitable trader. (he does not give trade alerts, he's just an instructor so he never does this). I took a webinar on the weekend. He does one weekly at least. He asked for 250 people max and a thousand showed up. He had a chatbox and answered my question personally so after that I felt confident enough to pay him for course. I emailed him and he responded personally with a course outline. I took a beginner course and was dying to learn more. He just happened to have a special for basically every course he's ever done for half the cost. I decided this was a way to trade that spoke to my strengths and I wanted to try to master it so I did it all. Beginner to masterclass, trends, scalps, reversals, fib, cycles, waves, crosses, sector research, futures, options, stocks, forex, minute charts to yearly, tick , heikin ashi, divergences.. it went on and on and I ate it up with a spoon. At the same time I started reading books. We correspond through emails still and sometime's hes busy. I don't know if he even knows who I am but he was the second person who changed my trading life.
I knew a lot but I was losing (often more) money. I was a "doctor" (maybe an high-school nurse) who had read a book on surgery but never done it and said "sure.. I can transplant a heart!"
Rather than focus on my teachings and understanding what I was learning, I got impatient and moved on too quickly. Anything I mention I did find helpful but not always at the time that I found it. I should have mastered each item then added to my already profitable program. I had neither of those things. The course I took from Barry Burns had some custom indicators for some platforms, but none I used. They were not "premium indicators" so to speak of little buy now arrows, but simply auto labeling of waves and cycles, auto drawing of some divergences etc. He teaches counting different from anyone else I've seen so standard Elliot wave theory did not work. I was frustrated. I was wondering if I made a mistake learning something differently than other people. (in the end it was irrelevant. It was an understanding of concepts and theory that mattered. The means by which you learned it is far less important. I would definitely take his courses again as my entry into trading if I did it again)
I knew how to trade I did not know what or when to trade them. I found a man named Robert Payne. He writes custom indicators for thinkorswim, many of which are are only available on other platforms. I had a lot of programming experience so I bought a couple of things from him and started studying his code. He was amazing! His code is top quality and his indicators actually were very good. And they did start helping me find a few setups. But they were expensive and nothing lasted. I would buy a Wolfe Wave indicator and learn to trade it but not understand what it was doing. We e-mailed back and fourth for a little while as he was teaching me how to use his stuff. He introduced me to a number of people (who often were behind the original indicators he was trying to replicate) and for that I am most grateful to him. The first and most influential to me later was Scott Carney.
Scott runs HarmonicTrader.com. He sells a very reasonable (I think its like 20 bucks a month when he does a sale) where you get a morning trade meeting about the market and futures commodities harmonics that are setting up, a harmonic pattern indicator for almost any platform (some are far better than others)) and books and videos all focused on this one thing he has dedicated his life to.
I went to culinary school for a year. My first Chef instructor told our class on day one: "always source from people who specialize in one thing". On dozens of trips to Mexico in my youth we would drive ATC's up dirt roads to these small shacks. The last house on the left was Lupe and she always had a baby in one arm and a ladle in the other where she pour tortilla batter on a griddle press. I doubt it was clean, everything was covered in dirt from the windy sandy landscape - but they were the best damn tortilla's in the world.
Scott Carney is my chubby little Mexican goddess of trading Harmonic patterns and the third person who changed my trading life. (and he would not be happy if I called him that)
At this point I was struggling to find tradable stocks still. I started leaving all my chatrooms and twitter groups and message boards. I limit my twitter to people who trade better than me or up-my-game in some way. I try not to "mingle" with people of my skill level too much. I want to be challenged constantly.
I met a few more mentors but no more paid programs. Instead I pay for services like good websites and platforms that help me make my own decisions. I started associating and following expert technicians and I learn from every day and week in videos charts and tweets.
41 I started studing #thestrat on twitter and following the mentor Rob Smith. He taught me price discovery, time frame continuity and participation groups. He is the fourth person who changed my trading life.
Now when I see this:
https://chrt.biz/LOVE/12425esmrhl/chart/
This is what I see in my head.
https://chrt.biz/LOVE/12425equ72v/chart/
and when I see this
https://chrt.biz/CCH/12425esm49g/chart/
I see this
https://chrt.biz/CCH/12425eqxxj4
And when I have nothing to trade, I can write my own scan and find my own winner and trade it without outside help. They aren't all winners. Plenty of losers. But I do it without help and that was my goal from day one. There were definitely turning points in my journey where the knowledge I learned caught up with the trading I was doing. If I had to do it over again, I don't think I would do anything differently. Even my mistakes were learning opportunities and brought me to where I am today.
There was no short cut. This is the hardest thing I've tried to do in my life and I've had some doozy's. I put hours and hours and hour and hours in charting a hundred charts a day. Repetition = learning for me. Just make sure you are learning something you won't regret. It's almost impossible to unlearn and I spend the majority of my time trying to stick to a rule-set to counteract things I learned incorrectly. I revisited things like Harmonics (that I trade daily now) as I gained more skill and finally things started coming together for me more and more until I just started to see patterns and trends and set ups naturally. Trading is a learnable skill that anyone can accomplish with hard work and focus.

Good Luck. Be Safe.
submitted by UncleRyan79 to UncleRyanAZ [link] [comments]

Tradeology - Accelerating Profits System Review - Will it make you money?

Quickening Profits Review: FAQ's
We reached Toshko and inquired as to whether he may give us a smidgen of the most regularly posed inquiries, he was glad to oblige:
  1. Will another merchant gain proficiency with this framework? Unquestionably, a fledgling merchant can surely find out about this exceptional forex exchanging framework. There is consistently an edge to being another broker, these individuals once in a while have unwanted practices or assumptions which make acing various procedures risky. Clearly, there exists a smidgen of an expectation to absorb information, be that as it may, this bend may wind up being quick. With the help offered in the individuals' zone, the time it typically takes to comprehend the Accelerating Profits System will be limited extraordinarily. Remember, they as of now have a dealer accessible just as successive online courses especially to support you, new brokers.
  2. Accelerating Profits System Review:- A lot of frameworks appear to be precarious; will I have the option to do this? The techniques in the Accelerating Profits System are clear this is actually why We can enthusiastically suggest it for new brokers too. Other than the innumerable outlines and live exchanging to show everybody the correct method to utilize these people, an fx money exchanging master group will besides be around to help answer practically any worry to assist you with having a comprehension of tips on the best way to exchange.
  3. Will the Accelerating Profits System work on any sort of graphing programming? This particular methodology may just be exchanged while utilizing the 100 % free MetaTrader4 stage. On the off chance that you're another dealer or maybe you have never utilized this stage already, they have set a total DVD to show everybody correctly the correct method to put it to utilize. The MetaTrader4 exchanging program is a breeze to execute, this is the key motivation behind why it is the picked foundation of numerous forex dealers.
  4. What is the Win-Loss Ratio? Consistently, I typically win +/ - 80% practically day by day utilizing the Accelerating Profits System, notwithstanding, this sort of rate can shift enormously from broker to dealer. At first, your final product unquestionably won't as much as possible work with everybody up to the fact of the matter you're getting fundamentally the same as or more noteworthy results.
  5. Accelerating Profits System:- What number of assets do I have to begin? So as to get this show on the road, I suggest no money using any and all means. Exchange utilizing a demo profile to affirm you're secure with the framework. The second you do settle on a choice to go live, start off utilizing the most essential entirety conceivable, practically all intermediary organizations will offer you a small scale profile that can be financed with well under $100.
  6. Will there be a month to month membership or is it a one-time expense? The Accelerating Profits System, which contains the 4 DVDs, an exchanging manual, cheat sheets, part's region, online courses, and all the rewards, are supportive of a one-time-just charge. Also, you will get unending access to your private part's zone.
  7. Is Accelerating Profits System a scalping, intraday, or swing exchanging procedure? It is just pretty much the entirety of the abovementioned. It can completely be utilized to scalp the 5 minutes and even the 1-minute time spans, yet you can likewise utilize it adequately on the 4 hours, day by day, or week by week time periods. The program performs on each time span.
Quickening Profits System Review — Profitable or Not?
Quickening Profits System is unquestionably a dependable propelled framework. I've paid for and dissected a lot of forex exchanging items and courses, and may unhesitatingly specify that this particular item is solid. The folks behind it (the Tradeology group, Toskko Raychev) are really experts at their territory and have in excess of 10 years of mastery in structuring legitimate forex exchanging items and arrangements which truly bolster numerous other fx dealers win a living. The Accelerating Profits System is a final product of heaps of working hours contributed, and the immediate outcome is a successful framework that is absolutely truly worth considering for fx broker potentially not presently creating 6 figures exchanging forex.
submitted by aishamudgil to u/aishamudgil [link] [comments]

Forex Signals - How to Instantly Trade Like You Have Decades of Forex Trading Experience

Seriously consider forex signals if you are not yet trading profitably, have limited experience, or just don't have much time to devote to your forex trading.
From the simple one email a day variety to the forex mentor who sits with you all day holding your hand as you trade, a portfolio of forex trade alerts can be virtually free and can transform you into a profitable trader instantly.
If like us you've ever analysed a chart and placed your own trades, you will almost certainly have also sat in front of your screen wondering if you were doing the right thing.
Questions like "have I entered this trade too late ?" and "am I trading in the right direction (long when I should be short)" will certainly have entered your mind.
How many times have you wished you had an expert trader with decades of experience guiding your trades, keeping you out of dangerous trades, and pointing you towards trades with a higher probability of success ?
We were certainly in that position many times in the early days, but always imagined the cost of having an expert on hand would far outweigh any extra profits we might make. It turns out we were quite wrong.
There are numerous services available, known variously as forex signals, forex alerts, or forex tips.
Trading signals come in a variety of formats, suited to how much of your day you can devote to trading. And yes beware, there are loads of scams out there too, but we'll show you how to avoid them, and we'll direct you towards the better ones.
Forex Trading Signals - many varieties
The main characteristics of forex trading signals to be aware of are as follows;

A free forex signal may at first seem like a fabulous idea, but as we will reveal here, you may very well prefer to pay for a free subscription service (yes, we know that doesn't make sense - but read on)
Most forex trade signals charge a very modest subscription fee, usually in the region of USD $80 - $400 per month (although happily most are at the lower end of this range), while there are also websites which provide forex signals for no charge.
In their simplest form a forex trading signal will send you a forex alert email once a day listing trade set ups for the next 24 hours.
Some of these are purely computer generated, some are computer generated and then audited by a human expert, and some are completely researched and generated exclusively by a human expert trader who may add some market commentary to their forex forecast.
Some forex trading signals are high volume scalpers, calling many trades in a day aiming to profit a handful of pips on each. Others only call a few trades a day, aiming to profit 20 - 80 pips on each single trade.
At the more full-service end of the market is the type of forex signal service which provides you with an almost 24 hour a day live online broadcast calling forex trading tips as they occur, explaining the logic of the proposed trade and backing it up with an email or even a video clip.
Some forex trading signals will even trade their signals in your own account for you, leaving you to just sit back and watch. This is similar to what a robot does by using forex signal software, but with the added reassurance that it's being done by an experienced intelligent human trader rather than a dumb machine following an algorithm.
Think of full-service forex trading signals like a forex TV station, which you have running in the background on your pc or internet connected laptop throughout your day. The broadcast remains quiet when there is nothing to do, freeing your time for the other priorities in your day, then calls for your attention when there is a trade to place or manage.
You may be surprised, as we were, to discover that the prices charged by full-service providers are usually very similar to those charged by the one email a day providers.
This type of service usually also includes an interactive facility, enabling you to send a message to your forex mentor if you have a question.
Many forex signal services have very loyal memberships, and some even limit the number of members they will accept.
Free forex signals (virtually)
On the basis that time is money, in our opinion the amount of time we can now devote to other activities by not slaving over our charts for hours searching for the perfect trade set up, not to mention the improvement in our trading results, has more than paid for the very modest cost of the forex signal subscriptions.
Indeed if you apply this logic, subscription based services can effectively be free when you take into account the improvement in your trading profits, and the freeing of your time for other profitable activities.
If you think about it, a subscription based forex signal service has a built-in incentive to call profitable forex trading tips, as its subscriber base would soon evaporate if it failed to provide profitable currency trading tips. "Free" non subscription signals do not have this incentive.
Manage your risk
In any aspect of forex trading your primary goal is to manage your risk. Choosing, and trading a forex trade alert should be no different.
Even the best most experienced provider of forex signals will regularly have losing trades. However taken with all of their winning currency trade signals the overall result should still be profitable, but not all systems work all of the time. Some forex alerts may even have a completely losing week or month.
However, we have found through our own experience that the best way of making consistent profits with forex signals is to subscribe to several different currency trading signals and trade all of their signals. If one of them is having a particularly bad week, the others should compensate and still net you a profitable week, or break even at worst.
Always do your due diligence before trading a provider's forex alerts. Good forex signal services will publish their last 6 - 12 months results on their website. Some will even show you details of the actual trades they took. Expect to see losses as well as winners - that's just the nature of trading. Indeed, if the results show only winners, or the provider is unwilling to show you any results, or to provide contact details of some of their clients willing to give a reference be on your guard.
Most will offer you some sort of free trial or discounted special offer. Make sure that you clearly understand the terms of this offer and know the deadline by which you need to give notice to terminate if you're not happy with the service provided.
If you compare the last 6 month's results of all the forex signal service providers you intend to use, you should find that taken as a whole they delivered a profit.
Past performance is no guarantee of future results, but we have found that if you have a good combination of trading styles in your trading signals portfolio you are in with a fighting chance of consistent profits whatever the market conditions.
Again, think about the cashflow logic of what you will be doing here - the subscription costs of each forex signals service are already very modest, and by combining them you are increasing your probability of consistent profits. They can't all get it wrong all of the time, and remember they are all incentivised by their membership to get it right as often as possible.
Even with experienced traders calling your trades, it's prudent risk management to never ever risk more than 3% of your initial capital on any one trade, preferably only 1%. So, if for example your initial capital, (or to put it another way, the maximum you can afford to lose) is let's say 5,000, the position size you take on each trade should be such that if the trade hit your stop loss, your maximum loss would be no more than 1% x 5,000 = 50.
Using forex signals as trade ideas
Even if you prefer not to follow forex tips to the letter, you can still profit from their trade idea.
For example, if you receive a forex tip trading the GBP/USD long with a 40 pip stop loss, but on analysing the charts (following your attendance on a forex training course) you feel more comfortable placing the stop loss let's say 63 pips below entry, giving the stop protection below a visible area of recent and prior support, which happens also to be below the weekly pivot point, and in doing so are happy to have a longer range target - then go right ahead and do so.
We were surprised to find that when we did exactly this with one of our forex signals' tips our trades actually performed better than theirs did. Two heads better than one maybe.
The point is though, that without the forex market forecast drawing our attention to that particular chart at that particular time we would never have seen that trade idea.
This also makes the point that while it may at first seem temping to let a signal provider trade your account for you, if you have the time you may actually prefer to control it yourself.
If you have been through a good forex training course and understand the concepts of support, resistance, pivot points, trends etc you should always use this knowledge to perform your own due diligence on forex alerts. You may well find as we did that you can enhance the overall performance of your portfolio of forex trade recommendations.
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Deals of Picked Box 2020 PT-4

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submitted by coupon-codes-2020 to u/coupon-codes-2020 [link] [comments]

Best Forex youtubers for day trading strategies?

I've been paper trading a lot recently and been getting better but want to find better strategies. I like using the Fibonacci retracement tools and find it applicable in both short and long-term situations for instance. But I don't really get why if you know what I mean...
Are there any Youtubers who preferably have both tutorials on their favored strategies as well as regular videos talking about what they are up to and showing them trading live?
Also some Youtubers that do small accounts and build them up for fun?
submitted by mcafc to Forex [link] [comments]

Readymade MLM Software Tirunelveli

Readymade MLM Software Tirunelveli the various functions provided with MLM software advances the efficiency of the output and also provides you more time to concentrate on your core MLM business activities. Usually, the MLM software consists of two modules Admin module and User module. In the admin module, the admin user will be the owner of the MLM business where the admin will be able to manage the entire MLM network formed and will be able to set the permissions to certain distributors of MLM business to manage more effectively. In the user module, the user will be able to view their own MLM network status, manage their payouts, view referral details, etc.
Some of the advantages of using MLM Software in Network Marketing Business are:
· Easy access and simple dashboard
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MLM Software Coimbatore its highly recommended to know the benefits of buying an MLM Software & also try a free MLM Software demo to review all the features of MLM Software. We have 12 different types of MLM, Advance MLM, Peer to Peer MLM, Twinkas clone MLM, Real Estate MLM, Binary MLM, Forced MLM, Uni-Level MLM, Membership MLM, Forex MLM, Pay to Read MLM, Pay for Referral etc. When compare to our Competitor we provide you with Free technical service for 1 year and free updation for 6 month once you buy our script. Here we mentioned our link you can just check our mlm software and whether it is perfectly suits or not.
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Kuvera GenXT: My personal review (was a part of it for several months so trust me when I say it’s not worth it)

Initial price: $250 USD
Monthly price: $229 USD (gets waived if 3 people STAY on your team)
Compensation plan: earn $500 USD a month if you introduce 12 people, $1000 USD a month if you introduce 40 people, $2000 USD a month if you introduce 100 people. IMPORTANT NOTES:
• these people need to stay in your organization each month, if one leaves you need to recruit another- so the whole residual income (money paid to you each month no matter what) thing is a lie. • if you bring in one person and that person brings 6 others, they all count towards you. (Hence why it’s a pyramid scheme) • your tree has to be “balanced” meaning that one person can only count towards 50% of your volume. For example: if you’re aiming towards the business builder rank (12 people), and you have a star recruiter on your team, only 6 people from that star recruiters team will count towards you. So warning the residual income definitely is not as easy as it looks.
I initially joined because I really wanted to learn how to invest but I didn’t know where to start. I saw one of the bigger leaders post about the opportunity on thier ig so I decided to join. I was really sceptical at first but my “upline” sent me proof it was legit: A+ rating on BBB (which is bs) , a yahoo finance article, and the company was registered with the SEC. Something still seemed fishy but I brushed it aside (dumb idea). From that day on I was told to go to as many different “opportunity” events as possible so I learn how to pitch the idea, and get my 3 people needed for a free membership. At first I really liked it, everyone was friendly and I felt I was doing something good. However, when I started investing I realized how difficult investing was. ALL of thier trading channels that you’re supposed to “copy and paste” alerts from are complete trash. I did everything I was told (place the alert at consistent allocation, don’t be too risky etc) yet I was either losing money or breaking even each week. One week a leader will say “follow this channel it’s really good” the next week you try it it’s trash again. There was no consistency at all which is needed if you actually want to make profits with forex. Moreover the actual forex education was horrible, the kuvera videos were no help and most “traders” weren’t knowledgeable. If you want to learn from am-mature university students, be my guest and join.
The deeper I got in, the more difficult it got. I was told that I had to post everyday on social media because consistency is the key to success (or so they say). I did that for several months and although I got a few people enrolled, many dropped out eventually. I also had a difficult time recruiting because we weren’t supposed to mention the price (because it’ll scare people), and we weren’t supposed to mention kuvera since a quick google search can reveal a lot of negative things. Instead our goal was to just peak people’s interest and get them out to an event or online webinar where one of the leaders explain it in the least sketchiest way possible. Looking back, I spent a LOT of time on social media as well as the “special events” and even though I’m supposed to have more freedom since it’s not a 9-5 job, it was the complete opposite. If I missed an event my up-lines made me feel guilty and bad about skipping. My team eventually grew to many people, and I was told I had to start “being a leader” and leading by example. I was told to go to every event, host my own events, and cold market everywhere. This blew my mind because the whole reason I joined was because I wanted more time to myself, yet I felt I had less and less. I eventually got fed up because there was barely any trading training, so I slowly stopped going. And that, is when I finally got my common sense back :) . I noticed the following:
1.) a lot of the top leaders who preach that they’ve achieved financial freedom are far from the opposite. They’re either struggling with getting their first 3 people and are just faking how it “changed their life”, or they’re at either bb or exec (500-1000) a month which is barely anything compared to if you got a J.O.B.
2.) Nobody mentions their losses during their presentations. When the leader of GenXT (Matt) asks the “team” how much money they made with the system, it’s always the same people. They rotate them and mix it up every now and then but in general it’s the same pitch. If you want an idea of what the system is actually like, ask different people in the room to show you their profits from day one. Not today, not last week but their entire track record.
  1. They want you to “stay close to the fire” and attend as many events and webinars as possible so you stay brainwashed
4.) All of the team culture events (restaurants, basketball games etc) are all there to distract you from the fact that not many people are making profits.
5.) Don’t believe everything you see on social media. They may be posting lavish lifestyles but every single trip they take together (Florida, Mexico etc) was paid individually. The company does not pitch in for anything. We were actually encouraged to go on these random trips because it creates more marketing content and shows people you’re making money.
6.) I noticed a few members were using demo accounts and posting their results on ig which is very misleading. If you see people making $300+ a day and using crazy allocations, just know they either: have a lot of capital, are risking their entire account, or they’re using a demo.
7.) You need A LOT of money to invest into forex in order to make a liveable profit. Either that or you need to be highly skilled, and trust me you won’t learn anything from kuvera.
8.) All the top leaders that make money through residual or forex are literally glued to thier phones. What’s the point of joining something like this and not having a moment of peace? Why not just get a job at least you’ll have weekends in peace.
9.) They talk a lot of shit about jobs but they’re not all that bad. At least you get paid for everything you do, you could put in 100 hours to an mlm and not receive anything in return. And jobs have health benefits, sick days, and sometimes even paid vacations.
10.) If you’re a part of an mlm you’re not a “business owner”. You’re a sales representative for the company.
11.) A lot of the people involved in mlm’s are literal vultures. They’re always looking for people to recruit everywhere they go which is sad.
12.) mlm’s ARE pyramid schemes, they just hide behind a product so they can legally operate.
13.) MLM’s like kuvera sell a dream rather than a product. They claim you can be your own boss, and become financially free just because the distributers see a few big leaders living that way. There are countless webinars and training sessions that motivate you to keep going and never give up, because the people at the top depend on the people at the bottom. The whole point of creating a team culture, is to make sure that people continue to have the right “mindset”, and to make sure their people do too. Because duplication is the most effective way to create strong recruiters. And although it is possible to make lots of money if you’re good at selling, the entire mlm system is flawed. You could be making loads of money from recruits, but at the expense of potentially hurting a lot of the people you bring in. After all, if no one pays the monthly fee, the company would not be able to pay their distributers.
Some of you may be reading this and thinking I’m pretty stupid for falling for a scheme like this, and you’re right. I lost more than $1500 just from paying the monthly fees but I kept going because my uplines convinced me that it took one of the biggest leaders (rakan khalifa) a year before he made it to his rank. It took me a long time to even find the courage to quit because everyone knew I was in it. I didn’t want to make it seem like I gave up because it was embarrassing. But I’m glad I did. If you’re a part of it right now the best thing to do is walk away, but ofc the choice is up to you.
submitted by Anonyorku57 to yorku [link] [comments]

How do you help a family member realize they are getting scammed?

M y brother is involved in a sketchy business that promotes to teach people how to trade in forex (foreign exchange). They claim that you can get rich if you learn the skills that they teach you on their online platform. You have to pay approximatly 200USD to gain acces to the platform and pay a monthly fee of around 150USD to stay on it. BUT when you convince two people to join and become members your membership is free for the next month.
These are obvious signs of a scam and a pyramid scheme but my brother doesn't believe me. I have already sent him the video of John Oliver about MLM's but I'm not sure if he has already watched it.
I'm not sure how to handle this because he keeps believing his 'friend' who has introduced him to this platform. The 'friend' uses big words and doesn't explain anything in detail and says the problems of the company in the past (i.e. getting convicted) have been solved.
Any advise at all would be extremely helpfull. Also how to convince him in a way that he doesn't get estranged from the family.
submitted by Thijs999 to antiMLM [link] [comments]

People who scam their own kind or people in general are going to hell with Hitler

Since being in San Diego I have been attempted scammed two times by people I would hope would have enough sense not to do so. I am a black guy from a pro black City, yes we do have our problems there but at least we have institutes and stuff to build up other black people that are trying to make a life for themself and not out here giving false hope and information. A black girl in San Diego targeted me for her IML scam. A scam where they get people to join their company and they have to pay a membership fee to learn how to trade on forex, stuff you can learn on YouTube for free.also if you join and you do not want to pay the fee you have to go and recruit three other people.what really tick me off about this scam (because I already knew it was too good to be true but had nothing to do that day) is what she said out of her mouth that she was looking for people like us. I showed up and guess what everybody in that room was black. Today, a small petite little Latina girl with braces, the most innocent-looking thing strangely walked past every single white person in the trolley station and came up to each black person and Spanish person and then went up to me handed me this paper and said if you're looking for a job call this number. of course I didn't call that number but I did search up what it was. it was a technical college for profit that was not accredited. meaning if I would have went there I would have been thousands of dollars in debt, wasted 7 months of my life and wouldn't be able to find a job that this college promised me. Why would she just go after her own kind and other people of minority descent? There's no ounce of empathy, these people pray on the downfall of anybody they deem as an easy target just for a quick buck.
submitted by Kirbydp to offmychest [link] [comments]

https://www.m1finance.com/articles-2/best-financial-websites/

What are the best financial websites?
The best financial sites offer a wealth of resources to people ranging from beginning investors to seasoned professionals. Some of these websites come from recognized leading financial media sources while others offer personal and investment financial advice from bloggers who have been successful. We have compiled a list of the best financial sites and finance blogs that you should include in your list of reading.
Why should I read the top financial websites?
In the past, people had to rely on financial advisors to gain information and education about finance. That notion has changed with the availability of the internet. There is a variety of top financial websites with more coming online each day. Since not everyone has a background in finance, reading some of the best websites is a great way for you to become more educated and confident about finance.
When did financial advice websites begin?
Financial websites started in the late 1990s with many more coming online in the 2000s. Some, such as Bankrate, started out in print decades ago before transforming into one of the best financial websites. Financial planning websites can help you to learn how to manage your money and to build wealth in a more effective way.
Learn about the best financial websites and financial blogs from M1 Finance Users of the best financial websites today
According to data from Statista, the top three leading finance websites by visitors include Yahoo! Finance with 70 million visitors per month, MSN Money Central with 65 million monthly visitors, and CNN Money with 50 million monthly visitors. The need for financial education and literacy is clear. According to the Financial Educators Council, the average test result for financial literacy across all age groups was a low 63%.
According to the Next Web, more than one million new users of the internet are coming online every day. There are reportedly over 4.3 billion internet users who are now online around the world. The global reach of the internet makes it an ideal vehicle for helping people around the world to become financially literate.
What are some of the best general financial websites?
These best financial websites are leaders in the provision of general financial information. Investors of all levels can benefit by making it a habit to read these top financial websites on a regular basis.
Yahoo!Finance
Yahoo! Finance aggregates finance news from around the internet. It also allows you to purchase company reports. You can find charts, price quotes, information about competitor companies, earnings reports and key ratios for free.
CNBC Markets
CNBC Markets provides up-to-date news about the global markets. In the news section, you can find listings of developments in the U.S. stock markets as well as for developments across Europe and Asia.
Forbes Money
Forbes Money is a leader in the finance and business world. Readers who are invested in topics such as investing, business and leadership can all find something that appeals to them in Forbes. In addition to finance topics, Forbes also covers related financial areas.
Investing.com
Investing.com is one of the best financial sites for people who are interested in active trading. On the home page, you can view forex prices, ETFs, commodities prices and futures contracts. The news section offers in-depth articles. Investors check this site daily to see current quotes for a variety of different investments.
Bloomberg
Bloomberg is one of the best financial websites for market data. On its news section, you can choose from different categories by region, general financial information, industry and asset class. You can see the historical information for a queried stock, which is helpful in identifying how different types of news reports impact the performance of the stock.
Reuters
Reuters is another website for obtaining market data. It offers broad coverage of stock news, sector news and market news. You can also find historical information, as well as an auto-complete stock name feature that is helpful search tool.
GoogleFinance
GoogleFinance is one of the best financial sites because of its search functionality. You can find an abundance of information about price quotes, news, competitor companies, earnings reports and key ratios. Keep in mind that some news items are not in real-time.
Read about the best financial websites and financial blogs from M1 Finance The Wall Street Journal
The Wall Street Journal has been released in print format since 1989. Online, it is reviewed as one of the top financial websites around the world. Readers from across the globe subscribe to the Wall Street Journal for its business news. The WSJ also offers its readers email alerts about news and stock information.
Investopedia
Investopedia is one of the best financial websites because of its emphasis on financial education. You are able to start a watchlist to track your stocks and can take courses on investing through its Investopedia Academy. The many articles offered by Investopedia is a rich resource for people who want to learn more about the stock market and financial principles.
Financial Times
The Financial Times is another leading publication that is read around the world. It offers comprehensive international coverage of financial news. However, you are only able to read the headlines for free. With a paid subscription, you can read the detailed news reports and gain access to diversified content.
NerdWallet
NerdWallet is one of the best financial websites for comparisons. The site allows you to compare investment accounts, high-yield savings accounts, CDs, debit cards, mortgages and credit cards. The site releases a best list for every category annually.
The Economist
The Economist is another go-to source for the latest in international news. It is authoritative and offers in-depth coverage of politics, finance, business, technology and science.
BankRate
BankRate was launched in 1976 as a newsletter and is highly respected. It has become one of the best financial websites available on the internet. You can find a wealth of data on mortgages, bank rates and credit cards. It also offers online financial advice about financial planning, investing and saving for retirement.
Barron’s
Barron’s is a weekly newspaper that has been published since 1921. On its website, it provides news about market developments in the U.S., financial information and related statistics. The website contains interest sections with in-depth coverage contained within each. Latest financial news can be found on its home page, while interest sections include technology, retirement, options and funds.
SEC
The SEC offers primary source material such as the quarterly and annual financial reports that have been filed with the SEC. These include publicly-traded companies’ filings. All of this data can be accessed through EDGAR on the SEC’s website by searching for a stock ticker symbol or the name of a company.
Kiplinger
Kiplinger ranks as one of the top financial advice websites. It is a sound resource for financial advice with coverage on how to save money and avoid fees. Kiplinger has a section that covers the basics of personal finance and has quizzes on a variety of finance topics.
Motley Fool
The Motley Fool offers investors in-depth analysis on general financial information. It also has stock market analyses and insights. While the name might be odd, the financial services company encourages its readers to become financially independent through information and research. Access to advice from experts is offered for an additional charge.
Money Morning
Money Morning boasts a free daily newsletter on information that can help you to become financially independent. The site’s layout is divided into major categories as well as hot topics sections. You can find advice on different stocks with in-depth analyses.
What are some of the best financial websites for stocks and trading?
If you are wanting to focus on the best financial websites for stocks, you can cut down your search time by including in your reading these best financial sites that we have listed for you. Each of these sites allows you to get the information that you need about different stocks and companies so that you can make informed investment decisions.
Investigate the best financial websites and financial blogs from M1 Finance CNN Markets
CNN is among the top news networks in the world. It has a markets section that simplifies browsing of economic news. The markets section contains current financial news, commodities changes, trending stocks and much more. Each of these topics has its own dedicated page for more in-depth information. If you want a fast update about the market news, CNN is a great source.
MarketWatch
MarketWatch has a news viewer section that gives you access to stories that have timestamps. News items are automatically updated, and its coverage includes global stock markets, forex, commodities and other classes of assets. It also offers data about macroeconomics and fundamental analysis information.
Seeking Alpha
Seeking Alpha aggregates data from other financial sites. You can find trending finance articles from across the internet together with the top-performing stocks and recent news. Seeking Alpha articles range from types of investment to investment strategies.
NASDAQ
NASDAQ offers the latest analysis and stock market news. You can find information on companies and their competitors, the latest news and see how the markets are performing. The site also provides quote updates and financial tools to aid in your investing endeavors.
Morningstar
Morningstar allows you to view annual returns of ETFs and mutual funds for the past 10 years. Quarterly and monthly returns for the past five years are also available on this site. You can review the after-tax returns of different funds so that you can gain a better idea of investor earnings.
The Street
The Street is one of the best financial sites for news about investing. When you read The Street, you can find opinions, recommendations, current events and how to get started in the market. There are also paid services that are available to investors, including market analyses and advanced strategies.
Zacks Investment Research
Zacks Investment Research requires you to sign up for a free membership to gain access to its data on funds and stocks. You are able to use this site to conduct comprehensive research. Zacks gives you access to independent reports that can help you when you are trying to build a well-diversified portfolio.
Review the best financial websites and financial blogs from M1 Finance NYSE
If you are invested in the stock market, the NYSE should be included on your list of best financial sites to read. The NYSE access includes listings information, markets, historical and real-time market data. All investors should make a habit of checking the NYSE’s site on a regular basis to stay informed.
What are some of the best financial blog sites?
Our list of best financial websites contains multiple finance blogs. These blogs offer online financial advice and financial planning tools while also providing answers to common investing questions. A list of the best financial sites would not be complete without including these top financial websites.
The Balance
The Balance offers articles that are divided into categories such as retirement, investing, debt management and banking. The articles give advice about many areas of finance and aim to increase your financial literacy.
Wise Bread
Wise Bread is a community of personal finance bloggers and finance experts. The goal is to help people to live well financially and to derive more enjoyment out of life. It includes multiple sections, including personal finance, frugal living, life hacks, credit cards and career advice.
Financial Post
The Financial Post offers a mix of financial news and analysis together with personal finance advice. The site targets a range of people from young investors to high net worth investors.
Money Crashers
Money Crashers is a comprehensive site that covers nearly all things related to finance. You can find information about debt, credit, investments, living frugally, small business and family. The goal is to educate those who are looking to make sound financial decisions.
The Simple Dollar
The Simple Dollar, written by the author of “365 Ways to Live Cheap!”, provides numerous tips for frugal living. It is one of the best financial planning websites for people who are wanting to gain control of their finances. Reading this blog can give you answers to your financial questions about how to reduce your expenses so that you can live within your means.
Good Financial Cents
Good Financial Cents is one of the best financial sites for people who want to learn about personal finance. It is written by Jeff Rose, who also has a YouTube Channel featuring many of his blog topics. The focus of this certified financial advisor’s blog is to educate people on how to become financially independent.
Financial Samurai
The Financial Samurai was established in 2009 by Sam Dogen. He was able to leave his job in corporate America after 13 years by saving at least 50% of his after-tax income from the time that he began his professional job. He invested his savings in real estate, bonds, stocks and CDs in order to have enough passive income to be able to quit his job and focus on his blog. He offers information about wealth management, financial products, real estate and more.
Dave Ramsey
Dave Ramsey is a well-known expert in the finance field who offers financial planning tools and personal finance education. His blog is recognized as one of the top financial planning websites and is used by millions of people to learn how to build wealth, reduce debt and increase their savings.
Mint Life
Mint Life is among the best financial sites for people who are looking for a broad personal finance resource. The blog contains a large list of money management categories with a range of articles available in each. The categories include everything from student finances, housing finances, food budgets, to much more.
Mr. Money Mustache
Mr. Money Mustache is a credible finance site with a quirky name. The author, who was able to retire at age 30, started his blog in 2005 when he was 36 years old. The blog’s mission is to allow you to learn how to live below your means and to build your savings quickly so that you can retire early, too.
Incorporating some of the best financial websites into your daily life can help you to learn more about how you can attain financial freedom by budgeting, living frugally and making saving a habit. You can take the information that you learn from these sites and apply it when you invest with M1 Finance.
Learn how M1 can empower you to manage your money and earn more
You can use your acquired knowledge from top financial websites to manage your own portfolio with M1. Instead of paying someone else to build a portfolio, you are able to build one yourself with M1. You have the control to customize your portfolio in order to meet your needs or you the option to choose from 80 prebuilt expert portfolios that were created to meet different goals, timeframes and risk levels. The sleek and intuitive design of the M1 Finance platform makes managing and building your portfolio simple.
M1 Finance is an online brokerage firm that blends key financial principles with digital technology to provide investors with a straightforward and seamless investing experience. M1 Finance helps you to manage your money in a more effective way so that you can earn more. The platform uses automated reinvestments and dynamic portfolio rebalancing to save you time. These features help to keep your portfolio in line to meet your financial goals.
When you choose M1 Finance, you are able to invest for free. M1 does not charge management fees or commissions, and you will be able to access the powerful automation from anywhere with its mobile investing capabilities. Get started today by signing up online or call us to learn more about investing at 312-600-2883. DISCLAIMER: Please consult your finance and tax professionals to learn more about investing and taxes.
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88 Structure of the Federal Reserve System

88 Structure of the Federal Reserve System
About the Federal Reserve System
The Federal Reserve System is the central bank of the United States.
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It performs five general functions to promote the effective operation of the U.S. economy and, more generally, the public interest. The Federal Reserve
conducts the nation's monetary policy to promote maximum employment, stable prices, and moderate long-term interest rates in the U.S. economy;
promotes the stability of the financial system and seeks to minimize and contain systemic risks through active monitoring and engagement in the U.S. and abroad;
promotes the safety and soundness of individual financial institutions and monitors their impact on the financial system as a whole;
fosters payment and settlement system safety and efficiency through services to the banking industry and the U.S. government that facilitate U.S.-dollar transactions and payments; and
promotes consumer protection and community development through consumer-focused supervision and examination, research and analysis of emerging consumer issues and trends, community economic development activities, and the administration of consumer laws and regulations.
Read more in the 10th edition of Federal Reserve System Purposes & Functions.
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Figure uses a pyramid of graphics to describe the Federal Reserve System. Top level: There is 1 U.S. Central Bank: the Federal Reserve System. Second level: The 3 Key Entities of the Federal Reserve System: Federal Reserve Board of Governors, 12 Federal Reserve Banks, and the Federal Open Market Committee. Third level: The 5 Key Functions of the Federal Reserve System: conducting the nation's monetary policy, helping maintain the stability of the financial system, supervising and regulating financial institutions, fostering payment and settlement system safety and efficiency, and promoting consumer protection and community development.
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The Decentralized System Structure and Its Philosophy
In establishing the Federal Reserve System, the United States was divided geographically into 12 Districts, each with a separately incorporated Reserve Bank. District boundaries were based on prevailing trade regions that existed in 1913 and related economic considerations, so they do not necessarily coincide with state lines.
Twelve Federal Reserve Districts operate independently but with supervision
Federal Reserve District boundaries are based on economic considerations; the Districts operate independently but under the supervision of the Federal Reserve Board of Governors.
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Federal Reserve Banks
01-Boston
02-New York
03-Philadelphia
04-Cleveland
05-Richmond
06-Atlanta
07-Chicago
08-St. Louis
09-Minneapolis
10-Kansas City
11-Dallas
12-San Francisco
Board
The Federal Reserve officially identifies Districts by number and Reserve Bank city.
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In the 12th District, the Seattle Branch serves Alaska, and the San Francisco Bank serves Hawaii. The System serves commonwealths and territories as follows: the New York Bank serves the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; the San Francisco Bank serves American Samoa, Guam, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. The Board of Governors revised the branch boundaries of the System in February 1996.
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As originally envisioned, each of the 12 Reserve Banks was intended to operate independently from the other Reserve Banks. Variation was expected in discount rates--the interest rate that commercial banks were charged for borrowing funds from a Reserve Bank. The setting of a separately determined discount rate appropriate to each District was considered the most important tool of monetary policy at that time. The concept of national economic policymaking was not well developed, and the impact of open market operations--purchases and sales of U.S. government securities--on policymaking was less significant.
As the nation's economy became more integrated and more complex, through advances in technology, communications, transportation, and financial services, the effective conduct of monetary policy began to require increased collaboration and coordination throughout the System. This was accomplished in part through revisions to the Federal Reserve Act in 1933 and 1935 that together created the modern-day Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC).
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The Depository Institutions Deregulation and Monetary Control Act of 1980 (Monetary Control Act) introduced an even greater degree of coordination among Reserve Banks with respect to the pricing of financial services offered to depository institutions. There has also been a trend among Reserve Banks to centralize or consolidate many of their financial services and support functions and to standardize others. Reserve Banks have become more efficient by entering into intra-System service agreements that allocate responsibilities for services and functions that are national in scope among each of the 12 Reserve Banks.
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The U.S. Approach to Central Banking
The framers of the Federal Reserve Act purposely rejected the concept of a single central bank. Instead, they provided for a central banking "system" with three salient features: (1) a central governing Board, (2) a decentralized operating structure of 12 Reserve Banks, and (3) a combination of public and private characteristics.
Although parts of the Federal Reserve System share some characteristics with private-sector entities, the Federal Reserve was established to serve the public interest.
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There are three key entities in the Federal Reserve System: the Board of Governors, the Federal Reserve Banks (Reserve Banks), and the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC). The Board of Governors, an agency of the federal government that reports to and is directly accountable to Congress, provides general guidance for the System and oversees the 12 Reserve Banks.
Within the System, certain responsibilities are shared between the Board of Governors in Washington, D.C., whose members are appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate, and the Federal Reserve Banks and Branches, which constitute the System's operating presence around the country. While the Federal Reserve has frequent communication with executive branch and congressional officials, its decisions are made independently.
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The Three Key Federal Reserve Entities
The Federal Reserve Board of Governors (Board of Governors), the Federal Reserve Banks (Reserve Banks), and the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) make decisions that help promote the health of the U.S. economy and the stability of the U.S. financial system.
Three key entities, serving the public interest
The framers of the Federal Reserve Act developed a central banking system that would broadly represent the public interest.
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CONGRESS graphic positioned above the three key Federal Reserve entities' graphics: 'CONGRESS oversees the Federal Reserve System and its entities.' A dotted arrow leads down to the BOARD graphic: 'BOARD OF GOVERNORS is an independent agency of the federal government.' A dotted arrow leads right from the BOARD graphic to the BANKS graphic: 'FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS are the operating arms of the Federal Reserve System and are supervised by the Board of Governors.' Dotted arrows lead left from the BOARD and BANKS graphics to the FOMC graphic: 'FEDERAL OPEN MARKET COMMITTEE consists of the members of the Board of Governors and Reserve Bank presidents. The Chair of the Board is the FOMC Chair.
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Other Significant Entities Contributing to Federal Reserve Functions
Two other groups play important roles in the Federal Reserve System's core functions:
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depository institutions--banks, thrifts, and credit unions; and
Federal Reserve System advisory committees, which make recommendations to the Board of Governors and to the Reserve Banks regarding the System's responsibilities.
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Depository Institutions
Depository institutions offer transaction, or checking, accounts to the public, and may maintain accounts of their own at their local Federal Reserve Banks. Depository institutions are required to meet reserve requirements--that is, to keep a certain amount of cash on hand or in an account at a Reserve Bank based on the total balances in the checking accounts they hold.
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Depository institutions that have higher balances in their Reserve Bank account than they need to meet reserve requirements may lend to other depository institutions that need those funds to satisfy their own reserve requirements. This rate influences interest rates, asset prices and wealth, exchange rates, and thereby, aggregate demand in the economy. The FOMC sets a target for the federal funds rate at its meetings and authorizes actions called open market operations to achieve that target.
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Advisory Councils
Four advisory councils assist and advise the Board on matters of public policy.
Federal Advisory Council (FAC). This council, established by the Federal Reserve Act, comprises 12 representatives of the banking industry. The FAC ordinarily meets with the Board four times a year, as required by law. Annually, each Reserve Bank chooses one person to represent its District on the FAC. FAC members customarily serve three one-year terms and elect their own officers.
Community Depository Institutions Advisory Council (CDIAC). The CDIAC was originally established by the Board of Governors to obtain information and views from thrift institutions (savings and loan institutions and mutual savings banks) and credit unions. More recently, its membership has expanded to include community banks. Like the FAC, the CDIAC provides the Board of Governors with firsthand insight and information about the economy, lending conditions, and other issues.
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Model Validation Council. This council was established by the Board of Governors in 2012 to provide expert and independent advice on its process to rigorously assess the models used in stress tests of banking institutions. Stress tests are required under the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act. The council is intended to improve the quality of stress tests and thereby strengthen confidence in the stress-testing program.
Community Advisory Council (CAC). This council was formed by the Federal Reserve Board in 2015 to offer diverse perspectives on the economic circumstances and financial services needs of consumers and communities, with a particular focus on the concerns of low- and moderate-income populations. The CAC complements the FAC and CDIAC, whose members represent depository institutions. The CAC meets semiannually with members of the Board of Governors. The 15 CAC members serve staggered three-year terms and are selected by the Board through a public nomination process.
Federal Reserve Banks also have their own advisory committees. Perhaps the most important of these are committees that advise the Banks on agricultural, small business, and labor matters. The Federal Reserve Board solicits the views of each of these committees biannually. More on https://www.freeforex-signals.com/
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Trump Didn’t Kill the Global Trade System. He Split It in Two.

This article is taken from the Wall Street Journal written about nine months ago and sits behind a a paywall, so I decided to copy and paste it here. This article explains Trump's policies toward global trade and what has actually happened so far. I think the article does a decent job of explaining the Trade War. While alot has happenedsince the article was written, I still think its relevant.
However, what is lacking in the article, like many articles on the trade war, is it doesn't really explain the history of US trade policy, the laws that the US administration is using to place tariffs on China and the official justification for the US President in enacting tariffs against China. In my analysis I will cover those points.

SUMMARY

When Trump entered the White House people feared he would dismantle the global system the US and its allies had built over the last 75 years, but he hasn't. He has realign into two systems. One between the US and its allies which looks similar to the one built since the 1980s with a few of quota and tariffs. As the article points out
Today, Korus and Nafta have been replaced by updated agreements(one not yet ratified) that look much like the originals. South Korea accepted quotas on steel. Mexico and Canada agreed to higher wages, North American content requirements and quotas for autos. Furthermore, the article points out Douglas Irwin, an economist and trade historian at Dartmouth College, calls these results the “status quo with Trumpian tweaks: a little more managed trade sprinkled about for favored industries. It’s not good, but it’s not the destruction of the system.” Mr. Trump’s actions so far affect only 12% of U.S. imports, according to Chad Bown of the Peterson Institute for International Economics. In 1984, 21% of imports were covered by similar restraints, many imposed by Mr. Reagan, such as on cars, steel, motorcycles and clothing. Protectionist instincts go so far in the US, there are strong lobby groups for both protectionist and freetrade in the US.
The second reflects a emerging rivalry between the US and China. Undo some of the integration that followed China accession to the WTO. Two questions 1) How far is the US willing to decouple with China 2) Can it persuade allies to join.
The second is going to be difficult because China's economic ties are greater than they were between the Soviets, and China isn't waging an ideological struggle. Trump lacks Reagan commitment to alliance and free trade. The status quo with China is crumbling Dan Sullivan, a Republican senator from Alaska, personifies these broader forces reshaping the U.S. approach to the world. When Mr. Xi visited the U.S. in 2015, Mr. Sullivan urged his colleagues to pay more attention to China’s rise. On the Senate floor, he quoted the political scientist Graham Allison: “War between the U.S. and China is more likely than recognized at the moment.” Last spring, Mr. Sullivan went to China and met officials including Vice President Wang Qishan. They seemed to think tensions with the U.S. will fade after Mr. Trump leaves the scene, Mr. Sullivan recalled. “I just said, ‘You are completely misreading this.’” The mistrust, he told them, is bipartisan, and will outlast Mr. Trump. both Bush II and Obama tried to change dialogue and engagement, but by the end of his term, Obama was questioning the approach. Trump has declared engagement. “We don’t like it when our allies steal our ideas either, but it’s a much less dangerous situation,” said Derek Scissors, a China expert at the American Enterprise Institute whose views align with the administration’s more hawkish officials. “We’re not worried about the war-fighting capability of Japan and Korea because they’re our friends.”
The article also points out unlike George Kennan in 1946 who made a case for containing the Soviet Union, the US hasn't explicitly made a case for containing the Soviets, Trump's administration hasn't, because as the the article explains its divided Michael Pillsbury a Hudson Institute scholar close to the Trump team, see 3 scenarios
Pillsbury thinks the third is most likely to happen, even though the administration hasn't said that it has adopted that policy. The US is stepping efforts to draw in other trading partners. The US, EU and Japan have launched a WTO effort to crack down on domestic subsidies and technology transfers requirement. US and Domestic concerns with prompted some countries to restrict Huawei. The US is also seeking to walloff China from other trade deals. However, there are risk with this strategy

ARTICLE

Trump Didn’t Kill the Global Trade System. He Split It in Two.

INTRODUCTION

My main criticism of this article is it tries like the vast majority of articles to fit US trade actions in the larger context of US geopolitical strategy. Even the author isn't certain "The first goes to the heart of Mr. Trump’s goal. If his aim is to hold back China’s advance, economists predict he will fail.". If you try to treat the trade "war" and US geopolitical strategy toward China as one, you will find yourself quickly frustrated and confused. If you treat them separately with their different set of stakeholders and histories, were they intersect with regards to China, but diverge. During the Cold War, trade policy toward the Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc was subordinated to geopolitical concerns. For Trump, the trade issues are more important than geopolitical strategy. His protectionist trade rhetoric has been fairly consistent since 1980s. In his administration, the top cabinet members holding economic portfolios, those of Commerce, Treasury and US Trade Representative are the same people he picked when he first took office. The Director of the Economic Council has changed hands once, its role isn't as important as the National Security Advisor. While State, Defense, CIA, Homeland Security, UN Ambassador, National Security Advisor have changed hands at least once. Only the Director of National Intelligence hasn't changed.
International Trade makes up 1/4 of the US economy, and like national security its primarily the responsibility of the Federal government. States in the US don't implement their own tariffs. If you add the impact of Treasury policy and how it relates to capital flows in and out of the US, the amounts easily exceed the size of the US economy. Furthermore, because of US Dollar role as the reserve currency and US control of over global system the impact of Treasury are global. Trade policy and investment flows runs through two federal departments Commerce and Treasury and for trade also USTR. Defense spending makes up 3.3% of GDP, and if you add in related homeland security its at most 4%. Why would anyone assume that these two realms be integrated let alone trade policy subordinate to whims of a national security bureaucracy in most instances? With North Korea or Iran, trade and investment subordinate themselves to national security, because to Treasury and Commerce bureaucrats and their affiliated interest groups, Iran and the DPRK are well, economic midgets, but China is a different matter.
The analysis will be divided into four sections. The first will be to provide a brief overview of US trade policy since 1914. The second section will discuss why the US is going after China on trade issues, and why the US has resorted using a bilateral approach as opposed to going through the WTO. The third section we will talk about how relations with China is hashed out in the US.
The reason why I submitted this article, because there aren't many post trying to explain US-China Trade War from a trade perspective. Here is a post titled "What is the Reasons for America's Trade War with China, and not one person mentioned Article 301 or China's WTO Commitments. You get numerous post saying that Huawei is at heart of the trade war. Its fine, but if you don't know what was inside the USTR Investigative report that lead to the tariffs. its like skipping dinner and only having dessert When the US President, Donald J Trump, says he wants to negotiate a better trade deal with other countries, and has been going on about for the last 35 years, longer than many of you have been alive, why do people think that the key issues with China aren't primarily about trade at the moment.

OVERVIEW OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE ORIENTATION

Before 1940s, the US could be categorized as a free market protectionist economy. For many this may seem like oxymoron, how can an economy be free market and protectionist? In 1913, government spending made up about 7.5% of US GDP, in the UK it was 13%, and for Germany 18% (Public Spending in the 20th Century A Global Perspective: Ludger Schuknecht and Vito Tanzi - 2000). UK had virtual zero tariffs, while for manufactured goods in France it was 20%, 13% Germany, 9% Belgium and 4% Netherlands. For raw materials and agricultural products, it was almost zero. In contrast, for the likes of United States, Russia and Japan it was 44%, 84% and 30% respectively. Even though in 1900 United States was an economic powerhouse along with Germany, manufactured exports only made up 30% of exports, and the US government saw tariffs as exclusively a domestic policy matter and didn't see tariffs as something to be negotiated with other nations. The US didn't have the large constituency to push the government for lower tariffs abroad for their exports like in Britain in the 1830-40s (Reluctant Partners: A History of Multilateral Trade Cooperation, 1850-2000).
The Underwood Tariffs Act of 1913 which legislated the income tax, dropped the tariffs to 1850 levels levels.Until 16th amendment was ratified in 1913 making income tax legal, all US federal revenue came from excise and tariffs. In contrast before 1914, about 50% of UK revenue came from income taxes. The reason for US reluctance to introduced income tax was ideological and the United State's relative weak government compared to those in Europe. After the First World War, the US introduced the Emergency Tariff Act of 1921, than the Fordney–McCumber Tariff of 1922 followed by a Smoot-Hawley Act of 1930. Contrary to popular opinion, the Smoot-Hawley Act of 1930 had a small negative impact on the economy, since imports and exports played a small part of the US economy, and the tariffs were lower than the average that existed from 1850-1914.
Immediately after the Second World War, when the US economy was the only industrialized economy left standing, the economic focus was on rehabilitation and monetary stability. There was no grandiose and ideological design. Bretton Woods system linked the US dollar to gold to create monetary stability, and to avoid competitive devaluation and tariffs that plagued the world economy after Britain took itself off the gold in 1931. The US$ was the natural choice, because in 1944 2/3 of the world's gold was in the US. One reason why the Marshall Plan was created was to alleviate the chronic deficits Europeans countries had with the US between 1945-50. It was to rebuild their economies so they could start exports good to the US. Even before it was full implemented in 1959, it was already facing problems, the trade surpluses that the US was running in the 1940s, turned to deficits as European and Japanese economies recovered. By 1959, Federal Reserves foreign liabilities had already exceeded its gold reserves. There were fears of a run on the US gold supply and arbitrage. A secondary policy of the Bretton woods system was curbs on capital outflows to reduce speculation on currency pegs, and this had a negative impact on foreign investment until it was abandoned in 1971. It wasn't until the 1980s, where foreign investment recovered to levels prior to 1914. Factoring out the big spike in global oil prices as a result of the OPEC cartel, it most likely wasn't until the mid-1990s that exports as a % of GDP had reached 1914 levels.
Until the 1980s, the US record regarding free trade and markets was mediocre. The impetus to remove trade barriers in Europe after the Second World War was driven by the Europeans themselves. The EEC already had a custom union in 1968, Canada and the US have yet to even discuss implementing one. Even with Canada it took the US over 50 years to get a Free Trade Agreement. NAFTA was inspired by the success of the EEC. NAFTA was very much an elite driven project. If the Americans put the NAFTA to a referendum like the British did with the EEC in the seventies, it most likely wouldn't pass. People often look at segregation in the US South as a political issue, but it was economic issue as well. How could the US preach free trade, when it didn't have free trade in its own country. Segregation was a internal non-tariff barrier. In the first election after the end of the Cold War in 1992, Ross Perot' based most of independent run for the Presidency on opposition to NAFTA. He won 19% of the vote. Like Ross Perot before him, Donald Trump is not the exception in how America has handled tariffs since the founding of the Republic, but more the norm.
The embrace of free trade by the business and political elite can be attributed to two events. After the end of Bretton Woods in 1971, a strong vested interest in the US in the form of multinationals and Wall Street emerged advocating for removal of tariffs and more importantly the removal of restrictions on free flow of capital, whether direct foreign investment in portfolio investment. However, the political class embrace of free trade and capital only really took off after the collapse of the Soviet Union propelled by Cold War triumphalism.
As mentioned by the article, the US is reverting back to a pre-WTO relations with China. As Robert Lighthizer said in speech in 2000
I guess my prescription, really, is to move back to more of a negotiating kind of a settlement. Return to WTO and what it really was meant to be. Something where you have somebody make a decision but have it not be binding.
The US is using financial and legal instruments developed during the Cold War like its extradition treaties (with Canada and Europe), and Section 301. Here is a very good recent article about enforcement commitment that China will make.‘Painful’ enforcement ahead for China if trade war deal is reached with US insisting on unilateral terms
NOTE: It is very difficult to talk about US-China trade war without a basic knowledge of global economic history since 1914. What a lot of people do is politicize or subordinate the economic history to the political. Some commentators think US power was just handed to them after the Second World War, when the US was the only industrialized economy left standing. The dominant position of the US was temporary and in reality its like having 10 tonnes of Gold sitting in your house, it doesn't automatically translate to influence. The US from 1945-1989 was slowly and gradually build her influence in the non-Communist world. For example, US influence in Canada in the 1960s wasn't as strong as it is now. Only 50% of Canadian exports went to the US in 1960s vs 80% at the present moment.

BASIS OF THE US TRADE DISCUSSION WITH CHINA

According to preliminary agreement between China and the US based on unnamed sources in the Wall Street Journal article US, China close in on Trade Deal. In this article it divides the deal in two sections. The first aspects have largely to do with deficits and is political.
As part of a deal, China is pledging to help level the playing field, including speeding up the timetable for removing foreign-ownership limitations on car ventures and reducing tariffs on imported vehicles to below the current auto tariff of 15%. Beijing would also step up purchases of U.S. goods—a tactic designed to appeal to President Trump, who campaigned on closing the bilateral trade deficit with China. One of the sweeteners would be an $18 billion natural-gas purchase from Cheniere Energy Inc., people familiar with the transaction said.
The second part will involve the following.
  1. Commitment Regarding Industrial Policy
  2. Provisions to protect IP
  3. Mechanism which complaints by US companies can be addressed
  4. Bilateral meetings adjudicate disputes. If talks don't produce agreement than US can raise tariffs unilaterally
This grouping of conditions is similar to the points filled under the 301 investigation which serve the basis for initiating the tariffs. I have been reading some sources that say this discussion on this second group of broader issues could only be finalized later
The official justifications for placing the tariffs on Chinese goods is found under the March 2018 investigation submitted by the office of the President to Congress titled FINDINGS OF THE INVESTIGATION INTO CHINA’S ACTS, POLICIES, AND PRACTICES RELATED TO TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, AND INNOVATION UNDER SECTION 301 OF THE TRADE ACT OF 1974. From this investigation the United States Trade Representative (USTR) place US Tariffs on Chinese goods as per Section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974. Here is a press release by the USTR listing the reasons for placing tariffs, and the key section from the press release. Specifically, the Section 301 investigation revealed:
In the bigger context of trade relations between US and China, China is not honoring its WTO commitments, and the USTR issued its yearly report to Congress in early February about the status of China compliance with its WTO commitments. The points that served as a basis for applying Section 301, also deviate from her commitments as Clinton's Trade Representative Charlene Barshefsky paving the way for a trade war. Barshefsky argues that China's back sliding was happening as early as 2006-07, and believes the trade war could have been avoided has those commitments been enforced by previous administrations.
I will provide a brief overview of WTO membership and China's process of getting into the WTO.
WTO members can be divided into two groups, first are countries that joined in 1995-97, and were members of GATT, than there are the second group that joined after 1997. China joined in 2001. There is an argument that when China joined in 2001, she faced more stringent conditions than other developing countries that joined before, because the vast majority of developing countries were members of GATT, and were admitted to the WTO based on that previous membership in GATT. Here is Brookings Institute article published in 2001 titled "Issues in China’s WTO Accession"
This question is all the more puzzling because the scope and depth of demands placed on entrants into the formal international trading system have increased substantially since the formal conclusion of the Uruguay Round of trade negotiations in 1994, which expanded the agenda considerably by covering many services, agriculture, intellectual property, and certain aspects of foreign direct investment. Since 1994, the international community has added agreements covering information technology, basic telecommunications services, and financial services. WTO membership now entails liberalization of a much broader range of domestic economic activity, including areas that traditionally have been regarded by most countries as among the most sensitive, than was required of countries entering the WTO’s predecessor organization the GATT.
The terms of China’s protocol of accession to the World Trade Organization reflect the developments just described and more. China’s market access commitments are much more far-reaching than those that governed the accession of countries only a decade ago. And, as a condition for membership, China was required to make protocol commitments that substantially exceed those made by any other member of the World Trade Organization, including those that have joined since 1995. The broader and deeper commitments China has made inevitably will entail substantial short-term economic costs.
What are the WTO commitments Barshefsky goes on about? When countries join the WTO, particularly those countries that weren't members of GATT and joined after 1997, they have to work toward fulfilling certain commitments. There are 4 key documents when countries make an accession to WTO membership, the working party report, the accession protocol paper, the goods schedule and service schedule.
In the working party report as part of the conclusion which specifies the commitment of each member country what they will do in areas that aren't compliant with WTO regulations on the date they joined. The problem there is no good enforcement mechanism for other members to force China to comply with these commitments. And WTO punishments are weak.
Here is the commitment paragraph for China
"The Working Party took note of the explanations and statements of China concerning its foreign trade regime, as reflected in this Report. The Working Party took note of the commitments given by China in relation to certain specific matters which are reproduced in paragraphs 18-19, 22-23, 35-36, 40, 42, 46-47, 49, 60, 62, 64, 68, 70, 73, 75, 78-79, 83-84, 86, 91-93, 96, 100-103, 107, 111, 115-117, 119-120, 122-123, 126-132, 136, 138, 140, 143, 145, 146, 148, 152, 154, 157, 162, 165, 167-168, 170-174, 177-178, 180, 182, 184-185, 187, 190-197, 199-200, 203-207, 210, 212-213, 215, 217, 222-223, 225, 227-228, 231-235, 238, 240-242, 252, 256, 259, 263, 265, 270, 275, 284, 286, 288, 291, 292, 296, 299, 302, 304-305, 307-310, 312-318, 320, 322, 331-334, 336, 339 and 341 of this Report and noted that these commitments are incorporated in paragraph 1.2 of the Draft Protocol. "
This is a tool by the WTO that list all the WTO commitment of each country in the working paper. In the goods and service schedule they have commitments for particular sectors. Here is the a press release by the WTO in September 2001, after successfully concluding talks for accession, and brief summary of key areas in which China hasn't fulfilled her commitments. Most of the commitments made by China were made to address its legacy as a non-market economy and involvement of state owned enterprises. In my opinion, I think the US government and investors grew increasingly frustrated with China, after 2007 not just because of China's back sliding, but relative to other countries who joined after 1997 like Vietnam, another non-market Leninist dictatorship. When comparing China's commitments to the WTO its best to compare her progress with those that joined after 1997, which were mostly ex-Soviet Republics.
NOTE: The Chinese media have for two decades compared any time the US has talked about China's currency manipulation or any other issue as a pretext for imposing tariffs on China to the Plaza Accords. I am very sure people will raise it here. My criticism of this view is fourfold. First, the US targeted not just Japan, but France, Britain and the UK as well. Secondly, the causes of the Japan lost decade were due largely to internal factors. Thirdly, Japan, UK, Britain and France in the 1980s, the Yuan isn't undervalued today. Lastly, in the USTR investigation, its China's practices that are the concern, not so much the trade deficit.

REASONS FOR TRUMPS UNILATERAL APPROACH

I feel that people shouldn't dismiss Trump's unilateral approach toward China for several reasons.
  1. The multilateral approach won't work in many issues such as the trade deficit, commercial espionage and intellectual property, because US and her allies have different interest with regard to these issues. Germany and Japan and trade surpluses with China, while the US runs a deficit. In order to reach a consensus means the West has to compromise among themselves, and the end result if the type of toothless resolutions you commonly find in ASEAN regarding the SCS. Does America want to "compromise" its interest to appease a politician like Justin Trudeau? Not to mention opposition from domestic interest. TPP was opposed by both Clinton and Trump during the election.
  2. You can't launch a geopolitical front against China using a newly formed trade block like the TPP. Some of the existing TPP members are in economic groups with China, like Malaysia and Australia.
  3. China has joined a multitude of international bodies, and at least in trade, these bodies haven't changed its behavior.
  4. Dealing with China, its a no win situation whether you use a tough multilateral / unilateral approach. If the US endorse a tough unilateral approach gives the impression that the US is acting like the British during the Opium War. If you take a concerted Western approach you are accused of acting like the 8 Powers Alliance in 1900.
  5. Trump was elected to deal with China which he and his supporters believe was responsible for the loss of millions manufacturing jobs when China joined the WTO in 2001. It is estimate the US lost 6 Million jobs, about 1/4 of US manufacturing Jobs. This has been subsequently advanced by some economists. The ball got rolling when Bill Clinton decided to grant China Most Favored Nation status in 1999, just a decade after Tiananmen.
  6. China hasn't dealt with issues like IP protection, market access, subsidies to state own companies and state funded industrial spying.
To his credit, Trump has said his aim was not to overthrow authoritarian governments, and that even applies to the likes of Iran. The Arab spring scared Russia and China, because the US for a brief moment placed the spread of democracy over its security interest.

UNDERSTANDING HOW THE US MAKES DECISIONS REGARDING CHINA

At this moment, China or the trade war isn't an area of great concern for the American public, among international issues it ranks lower than international terrorism, North Korea and Iran's nuclear program.
According to the survey, 39 percent of the country views China’s growing power as a “critical threat” to Americans. That ranked it only eighth among 12 potential threats listed and placed China well behind the perceived threats from international terrorism (66 percent), North Korea’s nuclear program (59 percent) and Iran’s nuclear program (52 percent). It’s also considerably lower than when the same question was asked during the 1990s, when more than half of those polled listed China as a critical threat. That broadly tracks with a recent poll from the Pew Research Center that found concern about U.S.-China economic issues had decreased since 2012.
In looking at how US conducts relations foreign policy with China, we should look at it from the three areas of most concern - economic, national security and ideology. Each sphere has their interest groups, and sometimes groups can occupy two spheres at once. Security experts are concerned with some aspects of China's economic actions like IP theft and industrial policy (China 2025), because they are related to security. In these sphere there are your hawks and dove. And each sphere is dominated by certain interest groups. That is why US policy toward China can often appear contradictory. You have Trump want to reduce the trade deficit, but security experts advocating for restrictions on dual use technology who are buttressed by people who want export restrictions on China, as a way of getting market access.
Right now the economic concerns are most dominant, and the hawks seem to dominate. The economic hawks traditionally have been domestic manufacturing companies and economic nationalist. In reality the hawks aren't dominant, but the groups like US Companies with large investment in China and Wall Street are no longer defending China, and some have turned hawkish against China. These US companies are the main conduit in which China's lobby Congress, since China only spends 50% of what Taiwan spends lobbying Congress.
THE ANGLO SAXON WORLD AND CHINA
I don't think many Chinese even those that speak English, have a good understanding Anglo-Saxon society mindset. Anglo Saxons countries, whether US, UK, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and Ireland are commerce driven society governed by sanctity of contracts. The English great philosophical contributions to Western philosophy have primarily to do with economics and politics like Adam Smith, John Locke, David Hume and Thomas Hobbes. This contrast with the French and Germans. Politics in the UK and to a lesser extent the US, is centered around economics, while in Mainland Europe its religion. When the Americans revolted against the British Empire in 1776, the initial source of the grievances were taxes.
Outside of East Asia, the rest of the World's relationship with China was largely commercial, and for United States, being an Anglosaxon country, even more so. In Southeast Asia, Chinese aren't known for high culture, but for trade and commerce. Outside Vietnam, most of Chinese loans words in Southeast Asian languages involve either food or money. The influence is akin to Yiddish in English.
Some people point to the Mao and Nixon meeting as great strategic breakthrough and symbol of what great power politics should look like. The reality is that the Mao-Nixon meeting was an anomaly in the long history of relations with China and the West. Much of China-Western relations over the last 500 years was conducted by multitudes of nameless Chinese and Western traders. The period from 1949-1979 was the only period were strategic concerns triumphed trade, because China had little to offer except instability and revolution. Even in this period, China's attempt to spread revolution in Southeast Asia was a threat to Western investments and corporate interest in the region. During the nadir of both the Qing Dynasty and Republican period, China was still engaged in its traditional commercial role. Throughout much of history of their relations with China, the goals of Britain and the United States were primarily economic,
IMAGINE JUST 10% OF CHINA BOUGHT MY PRODUCT
From the beginning, the allure of China to Western businesses and traders has been its sheer size I. One of the points that the USTR mentions is lack of market access for US companies operating in China, while Chinese companies face much less restrictions operating in the US.
This is supported by remarks by Henry Paulson and Charlene Barshefsky. As Paulson remarked
Trade with China has hurt some American workers. And they have expressed their grievances at the ballot box.
So while many attribute this shift to the Trump Administration, I do not. What we are now seeing will likely endure for some time within the American policy establishment. China is viewed—by a growing consensus—not just as a strategic challenge to the United States but as a country whose rise has come at America’s expense. In this environment, it would be helpful if the US-China relationship had more advocates. That it does not reflects another failure:
In large part because China has been slow to open its economy since it joined the WTO, the American business community has turned from advocate to skeptic and even opponent of past US policies toward China. American business doesn’t want a tariff war but it does want a more aggressive approach from our government. How can it be that those who know China best, work there, do business there, make money there, and have advocated for productive relations in the past, are among those now arguing for more confrontation? The answer lies in the story of stalled competition policy, and the slow pace of opening, over nearly two decades. This has discouraged and fragmented the American business community. And it has reinforced the negative attitudinal shift among our political and expert classes. In short, even though many American businesses continue to prosper in China, a growing number of firms have given up hope that the playing field will ever be level. Some have accepted the Faustian bargain of maximizing today’s earnings per share while operating under restrictions that jeopardize their future competitiveness. But that doesn’t mean they’re happy about it. Nor does it mean they aren’t acutely aware of the risks — or thinking harder than ever before about how to diversify their risks away from, and beyond, China.
What is interesting about Paulson's speech is he spend only one sentence about displaced US workers, and a whole paragraph about US business operating in China. While Kissinger writes books about China, how much does he contribute to both Democrats and the Republicans during the election cycle? China is increasingly makING it more difficult for US companies operating and those exporting products to China.

CONTINUED

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